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研究生:林淑琇
研究生(外文):Shu-Hsiu Lin
論文名稱:從馬斯洛之需求層次來研究《天使的灰燼》:孩子在逆境中力爭上游的轉變過程
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Angela’s Ashes from Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: A Child’s Transformation Process in the Most Hostile Environment
指導教授:楊薇雲楊薇雲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Yun Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:應用外語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:需求層次母親角色父親角色代理父親宗教民族主義
外文關鍵詞:Hierarchy of Needsmother figurefather figuresubstitute fathersreligionnationalism
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本論文旨在探討愛爾蘭裔美國作家法蘭克.麥考克的普立茲得獎作品《天使的灰燼》,從這本自傳式的回憶錄剖析法蘭克.麥考克在逆境中力爭上游的轉變過程,以馬斯洛之需求層次來研究分析,並探討其所內涵之教育功能。本論文共分為五章,第一章總覽法蘭克.麥考克的成長背景及學術成就。第二章則以馬斯洛之需求層次來檢視法蘭克.麥考克的轉變。第三章剖析對法蘭克.麥考克有重大影響的關鍵人物。第四章研究法蘭克.麥考克造成重大影響的關鍵人物。第五章結論,肯定法蘭克.麥考克的《天使的灰燼》對兒童在逆境中成長的貢獻及提出各方教育所應有之省思。
Frank McCourt’s Angela’s Ashes chronicles McCourt’s childhood in Irish slum where he encounters various kinds of predicament and how he keeps a positive thinking in bitterness; eventually he achieves his goal—American dream. His winning Pulitzer Prize marks the highlight of McCourt’s long and painful maturing process from childhood. His struggling process illustrates many valuable educational lessons of the prestigious psychologist Abraham Maslow. In this thesis, I would like to use Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs to delineate the transformation of process of the protagonist in Angela’s Ashes, Frank McCourt.
This thesis is divided into five chapters. The opening chapter introduces Frank McCourt’s background and scholarship. Also, it compares the similarities and differences of writing style between Frank McCourt and two notable Irish writers—Oscar Wilde and James Joyce.
Chapter Two presents a brief framework of Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs. Maslow’s hierarchical structure of human needs enlightens the protagonist’s transformation process from a seemingly hopeless child in a slum to a fully developed and independent man. It also indicates the transformation process how Frank McCourt upgrades himself from a physical laborer to an intellectual.
Chapter Three analyses the key persons who have strong impacts on Frank McCourt. First two are Frank McCourt’s parents. Frank McCourt experiences the roller caster of complex emotions toward his parents. However, he still holds many legacies from his parents. Then, he comes across four substitute fathers. Each substitute father acts as a role model who affects him in different aspects. The last but not least are two puppy lovers.
Chapter Four studies four key factors in public domain. These factors contribute to different effects and show vividly the ideological conflicts in Frank McCourt’s thoughts. They are school, society, religion and nationalism respectively. At school, young McCourt is detected to have a gift of writing. In society, he notices that he suffers from class discrimination. Ultimately, the powerful Catholicism and overarching nationalism dominate his childhood, but Frank McCourt keeps a paradoxical attitude to these two factors-both revered and reviled.
The conclusion chapter gives some pedagogical reflections from my experience in teaching young students from disadvantaged families. Finally, it concludes with the faith that Frank McCourt’s struggling process brings to those disadvantaged children and young people.
Table of Contents

Chinese Abstract……………………………………… i
English Abstract………………………………………. ii
Acknowledgements…………………………………. iv
Table of Contents……………………………………... v
Chapter One-Introduction…………………………………………. 1
Chapter Two-Hierarchy of Needs…………………………………. 13
2.1 Physiological Needs………………………………………… 14
2.2 The Safety Needs…………………………………………… 17
2.3 The Love Needs…………………………………………….. 20
2.4 The Esteem Needs………………………………………….. 24
2.5 The Needs for Self-actualization…………………………… 26
Chapter Three- Key Persons in Private Domain Who Shaped McCourt’s Life………………………………… 29
3.1 Mother Figure………………………………………………. 30
3.2 Father Figure………………………………………………... 38
3.3 Substitute Fathers…………………………………………… 43
3.4 Lovers……………………………………………………….. 48
Chapter Four- Key Factors in Public Domain Which Shaped McCourt’s Life……………………………………. 51
4.1 School………………………………………………………. 52
4.2 Society………………………………………………………. 58
4.3 Religion ……………………………………………………. 62
4.4 Nationalism…………………………………………………. 66
Chapter Five-Conclusion………………………………………….. 73
Note…………………………………………………… 85
Bibliography……...…………………………………... 87
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