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研究生:林錦成
研究生(外文):Jin-Chen Lin
論文名稱:台灣工具機產業之營運效率與生產力比較
論文名稱(外文):Department of Industrial Engineering and Management National Chin-Yi University of Technology
指導教授:楊旭豪楊旭豪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu-Hao Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立勤益科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:資料包絡分析生產力指標效率分析
外文關鍵詞:Data Envelopment AnalysisMalmquist productivity indexEfficiency
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機械為製造業之基礎,所有物品之生產必須使用機械,而工具機為機械產業之根基,所有機械的生產都必須使用工具機,因而隨著產業的發展,工具機產業也必跟著成長;根據最新資料統計,2008年台灣工具機為全球第四大出口國、第五大進口國。
故本研究以「工具機業」為主體,應用資料包絡分析法(DEA)與Malmquist指標(MPI)衡量「效率」及「生產力變動」,藉此評估台灣工具機產業歷年來的經營績效。本文收集民國87年至97年台灣十七家上市、上櫃之工具機廠商原始資料,所選取變數以固定資產、營業費用、及員工人數作為投入項,營收淨額與每股盈餘為產出項。
經由實證之結果解釋並探討造成無效率的可能原因,本研究發現:總平均技術效率值、純技術效率值及規模效率值都到達0.8以上,介於0.8~0.9之間,尚未到達1。受評的十七家廠商,慶鴻與巨庭為值得注意的業者,效率值均為1,處於最佳效率表現。但台灣工具機產業仍有改善空間,在資源的運用配置上及產業經濟規模上,並未達到資源投入與產出上的有效分配及最適經濟規模。
生產力變動分析方面,十年間,各項變動指標均呈現成長進步趨勢, 88-89年與91-92年度表現最佳,到96-97年卻處於大幅衰退的情況,以生產力下滑最為嚴重。整體而言,台灣工具機業者經營效率是退步的但生產力為進步之現象,說明部分廠商有投入資源浪費,以導致規模過剩。建議業者應將資源做有效運用,並以最適經濟規模管理,才會有最理想的經營績效。

Machinery is the foundation for manufacturing because the production of products requires extensive use of machine tools. According to the latest statistics, in terms of machine tools, Taiwan is the world’s fourth largest exporting country, and the fifth largest importing one in 2008.
This study applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to measure the efficiency and productivity change of Taiwan’s machine tool industry over the years. We collect the data of 17 firms over the period 1998-2008. The input variables are fixed assets, operating expenses, and the number of employees; the output variables are net sales and earnings per share.
According to the empirical results, this study finds that the majority of the average values of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency range from 0.8 to 0.9. Among 17 firms measured, Ching Hung and Chiu Ting are the best performers. However, Taiwan’s machine tool industry leaves room for improvement in terms of resource allocation and economies of scale.
In terms of MPI, the results show that the periods of 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 performed the best, while 2007-2008 was the worst. Overall, Taiwan’s machine tool firms were poor in efficiency, but made progress in productivity. The results also show that some firms might waste resources, leading to the excess of the scale. The study suggests that firms should make effective use of resources and optimal management of the economies of scale to achieve better performance.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
一、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究對象與範圍 3
1.4 研究架構 4
二、文獻探討 6
2.1 效率之基本概念 6
2.2 資料包絡分析法(DEA) 7
2.3 DEA之特性與限制 8
2.4 DEA之應用程序 9
2.5 生產力變動之理論模式 11
2.6 相關文獻回顧 11
2.7 資料包絡分析之研究探討 14
三、研究方法 17
3.1 資料包絡分析法 17
3.1.1 CCR模式 17
3.1.2 BCC模式 20
3.2 遺漏值處理方式 22
3.3 Malmquist生產力指數 25
四、實證分析 30
4.1 資料來源及投入產出變數之說明 30
4.2 台灣工具機產業實證結果分析 32
4.2.1 效率值分析 33
4.2.2 Malmquist生產力指數分析 44
五、結論與建議 52
5.1 結論 52
5.2 建議 53
參考文獻 54
中文文獻 54
英文文獻 55
附錄 58


中文文獻
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[2] 黃旭男,1993,資料包絡分析法使用程序之研究及其在非營利組織效率評估上之應用,國立交通大學,博士論文。
[3] 洪海玲,2002,以資料包絡分析法作製造業之營運效率分析,國立成功大學,碩士論文。
[4] 黃金祥,2003,DEA方法之產業效率與產業發展策略的實證分析-以光電產業為例,義守大學,碩士論文。
[5] 張晟域,2006,整合DEA視窗與Malmquist指數分析台灣電信效率,國立勤益科技大學,碩士論文。
[6] 陳彥茵,2007,亞太地區國際機場之營運效率與生產力比較,國立勤益科技大學,碩士論文。
[7] 黃崇豪,2006,國內工具機產業經營績效之評估-資料包絡分析法之應用,朝陽科技大學,碩士論文。
[8] 賴文玲,2006,我國TFT-LCD產業經營效率之研究-以資料包絡法分析,世新大學,碩士論文。
[9] 吳濟華,2008,臺灣地區營造業營運績效與經營策略,國立中山大學,中華民國建築學會「建築學報」第64 期,25~48 頁。
[10] 張峻彬,2008,針對已開發油氣礦區強化生產與蘊藏量估算之研究研究成果報告,嘉南藥理科技大學,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫。
[11] 林育霆,2008,亞太地區國際機場效率-比較應用DEA與SFA之結果,國立勤益科技大學,碩士論文。
[12] 詹陳旻,2009,應用DEA與SFA比較亞太地區國際機場之營運效率,國立勤益科技大學,碩士論文。
[13] 台灣證卷交易所(TWSE),2008,http://www.twse.com.tw/ch/
[14] 台灣區機器工業同業公會(TAMI),2008,http://www.iata.org/index.htm/
[15] 經濟部技術處產業技術知識服務計畫(ITIS),2008,http://www.itis.org.tw/About.screen
[16] 維基百科,2008,http://zh.wikipedia/
[17] 財團法人工具機發展基金會(TMTF),2008,http://www.tmtf.org.tw/chinese/
[18] 台中精機集團,2008,http://www.or.com.tw/
[19] 臺灣區工具機暨零組件工業同業公會(TMBA),2008,http://www.tmba.org.tw/home.asp
[20] 全亞文化,2008,http://www.asia-info.net/index.asp
英文文獻
[1] Andersen, P. and Petersen, N. C., 1993, “A procedure for ranking efficiency units in data envelopment analysis”, Management Science, 39, 1261-1264.
[2] Balk, B., 2001, “Scale efficiency and productivity change”, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 15(3), 159-183.
[3] Banker, R. D., Charnes, A. and Cooper, W. W., 1984, “Some model for estimating technical and scale inefficiencies in data envelopment analysis”, Management Science, 30, 1078-1092.
[4] Banker, R. D. and Morey, R., 1986, “Efficiency analysis for exogenously fixed inputs and outputs”, Operations Research, 34(4), 513-521.
[5] Bessent, A., Bessent, W., Kennington, j. and Regan, B., 1982, “An application of mathematical programming to assess productivity in the Houston independent school district”, Management Science, 28, 1355-1367.
[6] Byrnes, P., Färe, R. and Grosskopf, S., 1984, “Measuring productive efficiency: An application to Illinois strip mines”, Management Science, 30, 671-681.
[7] Caves, D., Christensen, L. and Diewert, E., 1982, “The economic theory of index numbers and the measurement of input, Output and Productivity”, Econometrica, 50(6), 1393-1414.
[8] Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W. and Rhodes, E., 1978, “Measuring the efficiency of decision making units”, European Journal of Operational Research, 2, 429-444.
[9] Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W., Seiford, L. M. and Stutz, J., 1983, “Invariant multiplicative efficiency and piecewise Cobb-Douglas envelopments”, Operations Research Letters, 2, 101-103.
[10] Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W., Golany, B. and Seiford, L., 1985, “Foundations of data envelopment analysis for Pareto-Koopmans efficient empirical production function”, Journal of Econometrics, 30, 91-107.
[11] Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W., Lewin, A. Y., Morey, R. C. and Rousseau, J., 1985, “Sensitivity and stability analysis in DEA”, Annals of Operations Research, 2, 139-156.
[12] Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W., Wei, Q. L. and Huang, Z. M., 1989, “Cone ratio data envelopment analysis and multi-objective programming”, International Journal of Systems Science, 20, 1099-1118.
[13] Chen, Y. and Ali, A. I., 2004, “DEA Malmquist productivity measure: New insights with an application to computer industry”, European Journal of Operational Research, 159(1), 239-249.
[14] Cook, W. D., Kress, M. and Seiford, L., 1993, “On the use of ordinal data in data envelopment analysis”, Journal of Operational Research Society, 44, 133-140.
[15] Cook, W. D., Kress, M. and Seiford, L., 1996, “Data envelopment analysis in the presence of both quantitative and qualitative factors”, Journal of Operational Research Society, 47, 945-953.
[16] Cooper, W. W., Seiford, L. M. and Tone, K., 2000, “Data envelopment analysis – A comprehensive text with models, applications, references and DEA-solver software”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts.
[17] Doyle, J. and Green, R., 1994, “Efficiency and cross-efficiency in DEA: derivations, meanings and uses”, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 45, 567-578.
[18] Färe, R., Grosskopf, S., Lindgren, B. and Roos, P., 1992, “Productivity changes in Swedish pharmacies 1980-1989: A non-parametric Malmquist approach”, Journal of Production Analysis, 3, 85-101.
[19] Färe, R., Grosskopf, S. and Lovell, C. A. K., 1994, Production frontiers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[20] Färe, R., Grosskopf, S. and Njinkeu, D., 1988, “On piecewise reference technologies”, Management Science, 34, 1507-1511.
[21] Farrell, M. J., 1957, “The measurement of productive efficiency”, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 120, Part 3, 253-281.
[22] Farrell, M. J. and Fieldhouse, M., 1962, “Estimating efficient production under increasing returns to scale”, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 125, Part 2, 252-267.
[23] Golany, J. A. and Roll, Y., 1989, An application procedure for DEA, OMEGA: International Journal of Management Science, 17, 237-250.
[24] Grosskopf, S., 2003, “Some remarks on productivity and its decompositions”, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 20(3), 459-474.
[25] Hsiao Frank S. T. and Park, C., 2005, “Korean and Taiwanese productivity performance: comparisons at matched manufacturing levels”, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 23(1), 85-107.
[26] Kao, C., 1994, “Efficiency improvement in data envelopment analysis”, European Journal of Operational Research, 73, 487-497.
[27] Kuosmanen, T., 2008, “Data envelopment analysis with missing data”, Journal of the Operational Reasearch Society, 1-8.
[28] Odeck, J., 2000, “Assessing the relative efficiency and productivity growth of vehicle inspection services: an application of DEA and Malmquist indices”, European Journal of Operational Research, 126(3), 501-514.
[29] Shephard, R. W., 1970, “Theory of cost and production functions”, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
[30] Sueyoshi, T., and Aoki, S., 2001, “A use of a nonparametric statistic for DEA frontier shift: the Kruskal and Wallis rank test”, OMEGA, 29(1), 1-18.
[31] Thompson, R. G., Langemeier, L. N., Lee, E. and Thrall, R. M., 1990, “The role of multiplier bounds in efficiency analysis with application to Kansas farming”, Journal of Econometrics, 46, 93-108.

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