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研究生:亞諾思
研究生(外文):Yanos Okterano
論文名稱:Between Faith and Violence: Defying Imam Samudra's Holy War
論文名稱(外文):Between Faith and Violence: Defying Imam Samudra's Holy War
指導教授:汪毓瑋汪毓瑋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang Yuh-Woei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中央警察大學
系所名稱:外事警察研究所
學門:軍警國防安全學門
學類:警政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:信仰暴力
外文關鍵詞:Imam Samudraviolencefaith
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Abstract

The general objective of this research project is to learn more about the violent
ideology of Imam Samudra (one of Jemaah Islamiyah member and Bali Bomb I perpetrator).
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the analysis of current Islam extremist ideology in
Indonesia. This thesis conducted particularly by understanding the ideology of Imam
Samudra concerning the Daulah Islamiyah (Islamic country) and the concept of jihad through
his works. Imam Samudra wrote his books entitled Sekuntum Rosela Pelipur Lara (A Stalk of
Rosella Solace), Aku Melawan Teroris (I am Fighting the Terrorists), and Jika Masih Ada
yang Mempertanyakan Jihadku (If Someone Asking My Jihad) while waiting his death
sentence execution in prison. In his three books, he gave the detail explanation regarding his
thought, his ideology, and his justification of terror acts, which he called ‘jihad against the
terrorists’, and then compare these works with the perspectives of prominent Islamic scholars.
This thesis took Islamic theological and juristic approach in respond to Imam
Samudra’s ideas, considering the nature of Imam Samudra’s argument, which is often
expressed in juristic and jurisprudential pronouncements. Muslims also mostly are more
comfortable with theological and juristic interpretations of religious explanations.
Theological and juristic approach is the classical Islamic scholars methodology of ijtihad or
deduction from the Quran and the Hadith (the Saying of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh).
The results of the study are: 1) theologically Indonesia is a Daulah Islamiyah; 2)
Muslim ruler cannot be considered as unbeliever unless there are clear proofs of his
disbelieve; 3) jihad must be carry under one Islamic banner and the supervision of Amir
(leader); 4) the stages of jihad mentioned by Ibn al-Qayyim are the stages that each stage is stand-alone, the next stage does not eliminate the previous stages; 5) non-Muslim foreigners who come for travel or business purpose, they are categorized as the mu'ahadin (nonMuslims whose enjoying a protected contractual relationship with Muslims), evidenced with visa or any other entry permit clearance as stated in their passports, as a sign of existing safety and security agreements between two countries; 6) suicide bombings, for any reasons are not justified in Islam.
The main conclusions are Imam Samudra had been wrong in interpreting the verses of Takfir and Jihad in the Quran, also not taking the words of the prominent Islamic scholars
who had been discussing this matter. This condition is the result of Imam Samudra’s ignorance in interpreting Islamic knowledge and his desire to perform jihad without having
sufficient understanding.
Content
Acknowledgements ....................................... i
Abstract ............................................... ii
Arabic Glossary ........................................ v
Chapter 1 .............................................. 1
Introduction and Research Design ....................... 1
1.1. Background ........................................ 1
1.2. Research Objectives ............................... 4
1.3. Methodology ....................................... 5
1.4. Limitation of the Study ........................... 9
Chapter 2 .............................................. 10
Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah ................................. 10
2.1. Establishment of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah ........... 10
2.2. Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah Network Operation .......... 14
2.2.1. Clash Inside JI Body ............................ 15
2.2.2. Recruitment ..................................... 18
2.2.3. Imam Samudra’s Halaqah ......................... 19
2.2.4. Brief Biography of Imam Samudra ................. 22
Chapter 3 .............................................. 25
The Relationship Between Islam and Jihad ............... 25
3.1. Islam and Iman .................................... 25
3.1.1. Pillars of Islam ................................ 29
3.1.2. Pillars of Iman ................................. 31
3.2. The Muslim and the Non-Muslim ..................... 34
3.3. Obligation of Jihad ............................... 37
3.3.1. Principle of Jihad .............................. 38
3.3.2. Types of Jihad .................................. 40
3.3.3. Offensive and Defensive Jihad ................... 46
Chapter 4 .............................................. 52
Imam Samudra’s Views Toward Indonesian Government and Jihad................................................... 52
4.1. Indonesia is Not a Daulah Islamiyah (Islamic State) 52
4.2. Obligation to Obey the Ruler ...................... 53
4.3. Apostate Ruler .................................... 55
4.4. Thagut (Idolatry) ................................. 57
4.5. Appointing a Kafir as Ruler ....................... 60
4.6. Ahluth-Thugur ..................................... 60
4.7. Call for Jihad .................................... 62
4.8. Jihad as Fardhu ‘Ain ............................. 63
4.9. Stages of Jihad ................................... 64
4.10. Civilian Target................................... 67
4.11. Suicide Bombing .................................. 69
Chapter 5 .............................................. 71
Defying Imam Samudra’s Holy War ....................... 71
5.1. Indonesia is Not a Daulah Islamiyah (Islamic State) 71
5.2. Obligation to Obey the Ruler ...................... 73
5.3. Apostate Ruler .................................... 80
5.3.1. History of Takfir ............................... 80
5.3.2. Types of Kufr and Requirements of Takfir ........ 81
5.2.3. Ruling by Other Than What Allah Has Revealed .... 83
5.2.4. Brief Explanation on Imam Samudra’s Views ...... 87
5.4. Thagut (Idolatry) ................................. 90
5.5. Appointing a Kafir as Ruler ....................... 90
5.6. Ahluth-Thugur ..................................... 92
5.7. Call for Jihad .................................... 93
5.8. Jihad as Fardhu ‘Ain ............................. 94
5.9. Stages of Jihad ................................... 97
5.10. Civilian Target................................... 100
5.10.1. Agreements and Covenants of Safety and Security. 103
5.10.2. Prohibition of Transgression When Fighting ..... 105
5.11. Suicide Bombing .................................. 107
Chapter 6 .............................................. 110
Conclusions and Recommendations ........................ 110
6.1. Conclusions ....................................... 110
6.2. Recommendations ................................... 113
Works Cited ............................................ 115論文全文
Works Cited
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Ibn al-Hajjaj, Muslim. Ringkasan Hadis Shahih Muslim. Ed. ‘Abdul ‘Azhim bin ‘Abdul Qawi Zakiyuddin Al-Mundziri. 2nd ed. Trans. Achmad Zaidun. Jakarta: Pustaka Amani,
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Fetzer, Joel S., J Christopher Soper. Muslims and the State in Britain, France, and Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. Print.
Hasan, Suhayb. “An Introduction to the Sciences of Hadith.” Dar-as-Salam, n.d. Sunnah Online. Web. 12 May 2010.
Hasan Al-Salman, Mashhur. “On Dangerous Errors in Regards to Issues of Agreements and Covenants of Safety and Security.” Manhaj, 2009. Salafi Manhaj. Web. 21 April 2010.
Hassan, Muhammad Haniff. Unlicensed to Kill, Countering Imam Samudra’s Justification for the Bali Bombing. Singapore: Peace Matters, 2006. Print.
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Manhaj, 2007. Salafi Manhaj. Web. 26 April 2010.
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Jabir Al-‘Alwani, Taha. “Usul Al Fiqh Al Islami Source Methodology In Islamic Jurisprudence: Methodology for Research and Knowledge.” The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1990. Islamic Web. Web. 10 May 2010.
Kepel, Gilles. The War for Muslim Minds, Islam and the West. Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 2004. Print.
Mazrui, Ali A. Islam Between Globalization and Counter-Terrorism. Oxford: James Currey, 2006. Print.
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Bin Naasiradeen al-Albaani, Muhammed. “Ask Those Who Know”. 2008. Islam House. Web 20 May 2010.
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Bin Rajaa’ as-Sihaymee, ’AbdusSalaam bin Saalim. “The Ideology of Terrorism and Violence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Its origins, the reasons for its spread and the solution.” 2007. Trans. ‘Abdul Haq ibn Kofi al-Ashanti. Salafi Manhaj. Web. 23 Apr. 2010.
Ar-Rayyis, Shaykh ’Abdul’Azeez. “The Clear Proofs for Refuting the Doubts of the People of Takfeer and Bombing.” 2006. Salafi Manhaj. Web. 21 April 2010.
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