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研究生:施志鴻
論文名稱:警察偵訊過程虛偽自白形成之研究
指導教授:林燦璋林燦璋引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中央警察大學
系所名稱:犯罪防治研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:230
中文關鍵詞:警詢
外文關鍵詞:Interrogation
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中文摘要
「一個人為什麼會對其沒有作過的犯罪加以自白?特別是之後會導致一連串不利於己的後果,甚至是被判處死刑」,是近年來英美日等國學者所關注的問題。本論文由犯罪偵查脈絡(偵訊前、中、後三個階段),探討警方偵查思維、偵訊情境、偵訊技術、嫌疑人無辜及個人特徵等虛偽自白形成相關因素,並提出虛偽自白形成之理解架構。本研究再經由個案研究,呈現我國虛偽自白案件具體現象,及虛偽自白當事人的內在心理建構。綜合文獻探討及個案研究結果發現:
一、虛偽自白是由一連串錯誤相互建構形成。
二、警方偵訊策略如同雙面刃。
三、虛偽自白涉及嫌疑人脆弱性及內在建構。
四、虛偽自白供述具可供辨識之特徵。
五、虛偽自白形成過程之理解架構,可作理解具體個案的視框。
基於前述研究發現,本研究提出三個根本且重要的心理學觀點,並基於此三個觀點,提出虛偽自白預防及研究建議:(一)偵查的本質是一種思維:建議應深入探究警方偵查案件時如何經驗、理解及思考偵查的過程,揭露偵查思維的運作過程,以提升其有效性並避免產生偵查偏誤;本研究亦建議建立偵查偏誤的預防機制,以降低偵查偏誤所造成的風險性。(二)偵訊是一種社會互動影響過程:建議引進偵訊心理學研究,探討警方運用何種偵訊技術,及如何影響嫌疑人知覺等;由此研究為基礎,對目前掌控思維取向的偵查模式進行反省與改革,逐步提出一套兼顧保障人權與發現真實的詢問模式;並且對某些脆弱性嫌疑人,應給予特別的關照,以避免其受個人因素或社會影響,提供不正確的供述內容。(三)供述證據本質是記憶:警方在取得供述證據時,應注意避免對其造成污染,並且透過全面錄音、影的記錄,提供後續信用性的評估。
Abstract
The phenomenon of false confession has received great deal of attention form the law and scientific community over the past decade. This research reviews what appears to be associated with the elicitation of false confessions, including situational factors, interrogation tactics, investigative bias, innoncence, and psychological vulnerabilities of the suspect.This research also puts forward and analyzes a conceptual model to analysis a false confession. Based on literature review and case study, Several finding emerged. First, sequential errors are responsible for false confession. Second, interrogation tactics are likely to produce false confessions. Third, suspects’ psychological constructions and vulnerabilities play an important role in the false confession. Forth, there are some features between ture and false confession statement that can be identified. Fifth, the conceptual model could be used to analysis a false confession case. Suggestions are proposed for the prevention of false confessions.
目次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
一、 虛偽自白的界定 1
二、 虛偽自白案件普遍存在 4
(一) 美國錯誤審判與虛偽自白 4
(二) 虛偽自白調查研究 6
三、 我國缺乏虛偽自白的相關研究 8
第二節 研究重要性 12
一、 開啟我國法與心理學(Law and Psychology)研究領域 14
二、 促進我國偵訊相關研究 15
三、 提供虛偽自白預防及研究之參考 16
第三節 研究目的 17
一、 探討偵訊過程虛偽自自形成的相關因素 17
二、 發展虛偽自白形成之理解架構 17
三、 提出預防虛偽自白的建議 18
第四節 研究流程 19
第二章 文獻探討 21
第一節 自白心理研究與理論 21
一、 否認因素 21
二、 自白比例 23
三、 自白之研究 27
(一) 自白特徵 27
(二) 自白動力 30
四、 自白理論 31
(一) Reid模式(Reid Technique of Investigating Interviewing) 32
(二) 決意模式(Decision-Making Model) 34
(三) 心理分析模式(Psychoanalytic Models) 35
(四) 互動模式(Interactional Model) 36
(五) 認知行為模式(Cognitive-Behavioural Model) 38
(六) 對話模式(Interrogation as Dialogue) 40
(七) 人本模式(Humanistic Model) 42
(八) Ofshe-Leo模式(Ofshe-Leo Model) 44
五、 小結 46
第二節 偵訊模式 48
一、 身體強制技術 52
二、 心理偵訊技術 57
三、 偵訊實踐的實證研究 65
四、 小結 69
第三節 虛偽自白形成因素之研究 70
一、 虛偽自白類型 70
(一) 自願虛偽自白(Voluntary False Confessions) 71
(二) 強制屈從虛偽自白(Coerced-Compliant False Confessions) 72
(三) 強制內化虛偽自白(Coerced-Internalized False Confessions) 75
二、 虛偽自白形成因素 78
(一) 偵訊情境 78
(二) 詢問階段說謊判斷偏誤 80
(三) 偵訊技術 82
(四) 無辜(Innocence) 89
(五) 個人脆弱性(Vulnerabilities) 90
三、 小結 93
第四節 虛偽自白形成過程 95
一、 偵查構造:假設-驗證的歷史重建過程 96
二、 偵查偏誤(Investigative Bias) 96
(一) 個人認知錯誤導致偵查偏誤 98
(二) 外在結構促使之偵查偏誤 101
三、 虛偽自白形成過程之理解架構 104
(一) 偵訊前階段 104
(二) 偵訊階段 104
(三) 偵訊後階段 105
四、 小結 106
第五節 自白筆錄與虛偽自白供述特徵 107
一、 自白筆錄的說服性特徵 107
二、 虛偽自白供述特徵 108
三、 小結 112
第三章 研究方法 115
第一節 多元典範的心理學-兩種文化的戰爭 115
一、 心理學的現代主義(Modernism) 115
二、 心理學的後現代主義(Post-Modernism) 117
三、 心理學的四種典範 119
四、 科學知識與專業實踐 123
第二節 研究設計 126
一、 方法論立場 126
二、 資料蒐集 129
(一) 個案選擇 129
(二) 資料來源 131
(三) 資料蒐集大綱 133
三、 個案詮釋及分析方法 135
(一) 故事性思維(Narrative Thinking) 135
(二) 詮釋循環( Hermeneutical circle ) 136
第三節 研究信、效度 139
一、 研究信度 139
二、 研究效度 140
(一) 內在效度 140
(二) 外在效度 141
第四節 研究限制 143
一、 研究者前理解的限制 143
二、 資料蒐集的限制 143
三、 現象詮釋及理解的限制 144
第四章 吳宅強盜案少年虛偽自白事件 145
第一節 事件重建與歷程 145
一、 偵訊前偵查 147
(一) 案發 147
(二) 專案小組成立 148
(三) 媒體報導 149
(四) 查訪線報 151
(五) 少年到案 153
二、 偵訊過程 153
(一) 訪談階段判斷說謊 153
(二) 詢問乙姓少年 154
(三) 詢問甲姓少年 159
(四) 詢問丙姓及丁姓少年 162
三、 後續偵查階段 166
(一) 證人指認 166
(二) 裁定收容 166
(三) 4月2日 尋求其他共犯 168
(四) 4月3日不在場證明 170
(五) 4月4日 生物跡證鑑驗不符 170
(六) 4月5日 提訊少年 172
(七) 4月6-10日 埋伏搜索 173
(八) 4月11日 案情逆轉 174
第二節 虛偽自白形成原因與過程分析 175
一、 偵訊前階段 176
(一) 案發後面臨高度的破案壓力 176
(二) 口語及非口語行為判斷形成偵查偏誤 177
二、 偵訊階段 179
(一) 運用欺騙、操弄及質問的偵訊策略 179
(二) 具有脆弱性的無辜嫌疑人 180
三、 偵訊後偵查階段 181
(一) 無法分辨自白的虛偽性 181
(二) 採用不具信用性的指認供述 182
(三) 扭曲及忽略與其假設不一致的證據 184
第三節 甲姓少年虛偽自白心理歷程敘說 185
一、 開場 186
二、 故事 188
(一) 三代的糾結關係 188
(二) 父母大小心 188
(三) 有人罩的國中生活 189
(四) 只想離開家 190
(五) 明明不是我 191
(六) 我只想要睡覺 193
(七) 算了,反正也沒有什麼值得堅持的 194
(八) 律師到場 195
(九) 心理的案底 195
三、 重新理解 196
第五章 結論與建議 199
第一節 研究發現 199
一、 虛偽自白是由一連串錯誤相互建構形成 201
二、 警方偵訊策略如同雙面刃 202
三、 虛偽自白涉及嫌疑人脆弱性及內在建構 204
四、 虛偽自白供述具有可供辨識的特徵 205
五、 虛偽自白形成過程之理解架構,可作理解具體個案的視框 207
第二節 研究建議 209
一、 偵查是一種故事性思維 209
(一) 發展偵查思維之研究 209
(二) 建立偵查偏誤的預防機制 210
二、 偵訊是社會互動影響過程 211
(一) 推動偵訊模式的改革 211
(二) 考量嫌疑人脆弱性 214
三、 供述證據的本質是記憶 214
(一) 自白信用性的確保及評估 215
(二) 落實偵訊全面錄影、錄音 216
第三節 結論 218
參考文獻 221
一、 中文文獻 221
二、 日文文獻 222
三、 英文文獻 222論文全文
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