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研究生:許賀軒
研究生(外文):He-Hsuan Hsu
論文名稱:在二階逆向物流存貨系統中考量產品的退化性並運用定價與訂購策略使整體利潤最大化
論文名稱(外文):An optimal ordering and pricing policy for deteriorating item under the two-echelon inventory system in reverse logistics
指導教授:邱裕方邱裕方引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Fang Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:工業與系統工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:逆向物流二階存貨系統完全缺貨後補產品退化性
外文關鍵詞:BackloggingDeteriorating ItemReverse LogisticsTwo-Echelon Inventory System
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中文摘要

逆向物流的存貨管理有別於正向物流的存貨管理,其差異在於逆向物流在存貨管理時,須將回收品納入整體的考量規劃之中。然而,目前在二階逆向物流存貨系統的相關文獻上,大多都是探討電子元件的可利用性,與產品的消耗在需求發生的時候。而卻鮮少討論到考慮電子元件的退化性,且由於考量電子元件的退化性導致產品存貨,除了顧客需求之外,同時也會因為退化的因素而降低良品的存貨水準。因此本研究參考相關的逆向物流存貨系統與產品退化性之研究,探討在二階逆向物流存貨系統中,加入產品退化性之因素,對既有的存貨模式產生什麼影響。且藉由模式的推導求得最佳的新品訂購批量與新品價格,並加入新品銷售週期允許缺貨的策略下,對於整個存貨系統的總利潤是否有影響。接著藉由模式的分析與驗證,來檢定兩模式之間的聯合總存貨成本是否存在顯著差異。最後從數值範例與敏感度分析中可以得知,當考慮產品退化性於二階逆向物流存貨系統時,製造商選擇允許缺貨後補的策略,會比選擇不允許缺貨的策略帶來更多的利潤。




Abstract

Inventory management in reverse logistics is different from that in logistics, and it should take the returned products into consideration. Most of the previous papers related to two-echelon inventory system in reverse logistics only discussed the usability of electronic components and the consumption of products when demand occurs. However, the variation of inventory level not only would be affected by customer demand, but also the deterioration of electronic components. This study focused on the two-echelon inventory system in reverse logistics and the deterioration of electronic components. Therefore, this study combined the consideration of deterioration and two-echelon inventory system in reverse logistic, and derived the optimal lot-size and selling price of new product. Moreover, this study added the consideration of backlogging in the model, and then tested whether there is a significant difference for joint total inventory cost between two models. The results of numerical example and sensitivity analysis presented that, considering the deteriorating products in two-echelon inventory system in reverse logistics, the profit of choosing the strategy of the backlogging would be more than one of choosing the prohibition of the backlogging.




目錄
中文摘要.......................................................................I
Abstract.....................................................................II
誌謝.........................................................................III
目錄.................................................................IV
圖目錄........................................................................VI
表目錄......................................................................VIII
第一章 序論.....................................................................1
1.1 研究背景與動機...........................................................1
1.2 研究目的與範圍...........................................................3
1.3 研究流程與架構...........................................................5
第二章 文獻探討.................................................................7
2.1 供應鏈相關定義 (Supply chain)............................................7
2.2 物流 (Logistic).........................................................9
2.3 存貨 (Inventory).......................................................11
2.3.1 經濟訂購量 (Economic Order Quantity, EOQ).........................13
2.3.2 經濟生產量........................................................14
2.3.3 週期檢視策略 (Periodic review policy).............................15
2.3.4 連續檢視策略 (Continuous review policy)...........................16
2.4 綠色供應鏈 (Green Supply Chain).........................................17
2.5 逆向物流 (Reverse Logistics)...........................................19
2.6 再製造 (Remanufacture).................................................20
2.7 檢驗 (Inspection)......................................................23
2.8逆向物流存貨管理.........................................................25
2.9 退化性產品 (Deteriorating Items)........................................27
2.10 小結..................................................................30
2.11 主要參考模式推導.......................................................33
第三章 研究方法................................................................46
3.1 問題敘述...............................................................47
3.2 研究設計...............................................................48
3.3 研究流程...............................................................49
3.4 相關模式與主要參考模式說明................................................50
3.5 研究假設...............................................................51
3.6 研究之模式一............................................................53
3.6.1 模式一之模式說明與建構.............................................53
3.6.2 存貨持有成本 .....................................................55
3.6.3 模式一之總利潤模式................................................64
3.6.4 模式求解.........................................................65
3.6.5 模式一之性質探討..................................................66
3.6.6 模式一之求解程序..................................................68
3.7 研究之模式二........................................................68
3.7.1 模式二之說明與建構.................................................69
3.7.2 存貨持有成本......................................................73
3.7.3 模式二之總利潤模式.................................................75
3.7.4 模式求解.........................................................76
3.7.5 模式二之性質探討..................................................77
3.7.6 模式二之求解程序..................................................78
第四章 模式驗證................................................................80
4.1 數值範例...............................................................80
4.1.1 模式一...........................................................81
4.1.2 模式二...........................................................83
4.2 敏感度分析...............................................................85
4.2.1 模式一之相關參數敏感度分析..........................................86
4.2.2 模式二之相關參數敏感度分析..........................................97
4.3 假說檢定...............................................................112
4.3.1 數據資料........................................................113
4.4 小結...................................................................117
第五章 結論與未來研究..........................................................119
5.1 研究結論...............................................................119
5.2未來研究................................................................121
參考文獻.....................................................................122
附錄.........................................................................130
圖目錄
圖1. 1退化商品與一般商品的訂購量 (Rau et al. 2003)................................2
圖1. 2研究流程圖................................................................6
圖2. 1供應鏈流程與發展 (Simchi-levi et al. 2008).................................9
圖2. 2物流網路圖 (Simchi-levi et al. 2008)....................................10
圖2. 3經濟訂購量之存貨週期圖 (Stevenson, 2005).................................14
圖2. 4經濟生產量之存貨週期圖 (Stevenson, 2005).................................15
圖2. 5週期檢視策略 (Simchi-levi et al, 2008)..................................16
圖2. 6連續檢視策略 (Simchi-levi et al, 2008)..................................17
圖2. 7逆向物流系統 (Kim et al, 2006)..........................................20
圖2. 8再製造動機與過程 (Van der laan and Teunter, 2006 and Mao, 2008)...........22
圖2. 9逆向物流檢驗系統;Pellerin (2009)........................................24
圖2. 10逆向物流的存貨系統 ;Van der laan and Teunter (2006)....................25
圖2. 11退化性產品與非退化行產品的訂購量 (Rau et al. 2003).........................28
圖2. 12一次回收多次生產之二階存貨圖 (Van der Laan, 2006).........................33
圖2. 13一次生產多次回收之二階存貨圖 (Van der Laan, 2006).........................34
圖2. 14逆向物流檢驗存貨模式.....................................................38
圖2. 15退化性產品存貨圖.........................................................43
圖3. 1研究概念圖...............................................................48
圖3. 2研究流程圖...............................................................50
圖3. 3模式一之二階存貨系統圖....................................................54
圖3. 4模式二之二階存貨系統圖....................................................71
圖4. 1回收率對聯合總利潤之影響...................................................87
圖4. 2新品退化率對聯合總利潤之影響...............................................88
圖4. 3翻新品與回收品的退化率對聯合總利潤之影響.....................................89
圖4. 4回收品可翻新比例對聯合總利潤之影響..........................................90
圖4. 5每單位新品持有成本對聯合總利潤之影響........................................91
圖4. 6單位回收品與翻新品持有成本對聯合總利潤之影響.................................92
圖4. 7每單位新品的訂購成本對聯合總利潤之影響......................................93
圖4. 8每單位回收品的翻新成本對聯合總利潤之影響.....................................94
圖4. 9每單位回收品的檢驗成本對聯合總利潤之影響.....................................95
圖4. 10翻新品價格與新品價格之比例對聯合總利潤之影響................................96
圖4. 11新品訂購次數對聯合總利潤之影響............................................97
圖4. 12回收率對聯合總利潤之影響..................................................99
圖4. 13新品退化率對聯合總利潤之影響.............................................100
圖4. 14回收品的退化率對聯合總利潤之影響..........................................101
圖4. 15回收品的可翻新的比例對聯合總利潤之影響....................................102
圖4. 16每單位新品持有成本對聯合總利潤之影響......................................103
圖4. 17每單位翻新品與回收品持有成本對聯合總利潤之影響.............................104
圖4. 18每單位新品的訂購成本對聯合總利潤之影響....................................105
圖4. 19每單位回收品的翻新成本對聯合總利潤之影響...................................106
圖4. 20每單位回收品的檢驗成本對聯合總利潤之影響...................................107
圖4. 21翻新品價格與新品價格之比例對聯合總利潤之影響...............................108
圖4. 22每單位新品的缺貨成本對聯合總利潤之影響....................................109
圖4. 23新品銷售週期的正存貨時間長度比例對聯合總利潤之影響..........................110
圖4. 24新品訂購次數對聯合總利潤之影響...........................................111
圖4. 25模式一之常態分配檢定....................................................116
圖4. 26模式二之常態分配檢定....................................................116
表目錄
表2. 1存貨的種類...............................................................12
表2. 2主要文獻內容與差異處......................................................31
表2. 3 Van der Laan (2006) 模式之參數定義......................................34
表2. 4 Konstantaras et al. (2010) 模式之參數定義...............................39
表2. 5 Rau et al. (2003) 模式之參數定義........................................43
表3. 1符號定義.................................................................52
表4. 1模式一之參數數據..........................................................81
表4. 2模式二之參數數據..........................................................83
表4. 3模式之計算結果比較........................................................85
表4. 4模式一 各參數值之變動幅度..................................................86
表4. 5模式一 回收率變動之敏感度分析..............................................86
表4. 6模式一 新品退化率變動之敏感度分析...........................................87
表4. 7模式一 回收品退化率變動之敏感度分析.........................................88
表4. 8模式一 可翻新比例變動之敏感度分析...........................................89
表4. 9模式一 新品持有成本變動之敏感度分析.........................................90
表4. 10模式一 翻新品持有成本變動之敏感度分析......................................91
表4. 11模式一 新品訂購成本變動之敏感度分析........................................92
表4. 12模式一 回收品翻新成本變動之敏感度分析......................................93
表4. 13模式一 回收品檢驗成本變動之敏感度分析......................................94
表4. 14模式一 價格比例變動之敏感度分析...........................................95
表4. 15模式一 新品訂購次數變動下對之敏感度分析....................................96
表4. 16模式一之各因子對聯合總利潤之影響..........................................97
表4. 17模式二 各參數值之變動幅度................................................98
表4. 18模式二 回收率變動之敏感度分析.............................................98
表4. 19模式二 新品退化率變動之敏感度分析..........................................99
表4. 20模式二 回收品退化率變動之敏感度分析.......................................100
表4. 21模式二 可翻新比例變動之敏感度分析.........................................101
表4. 22模式二 新品持有成本變動之敏感度分.........................................102
表4. 23模式二 翻新品持有成本變動之敏感度分析.....................................103
表4. 24模式二 新品訂購成本變動之敏感度分析.......................................104
表4. 25模式二 回收品翻新成本變動之敏感度分析.....................................105
表4. 26模式二 回收品檢驗成本變動之敏感度分析.....................................106
表4. 27模式二 價格比例變動之敏感度分析..........................................107
表4. 28模式二 新品缺貨成本變動之敏感度分析.......................................108
表4. 29模式二 正存貨時間長度比例變動之敏感度分析..................................109
表4. 30模式二 新品訂購次數變動之敏感度分析.......................................110
表4. 31模式二之各因子對聯合總利潤之影響..........................................111
表4. 32參數對於聯合總利潤之關係.................................................112
表4. 33模式一與模式二之30筆隨機參數組合.........................................113
表4. 34模式一與模式二之聯合總利潤數值...........................................115
表4. 35模式一與模式二之Paired T 檢定結果........................................117



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