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研究生:溫家騏
研究生(外文):Chia-Chi Wen
論文名稱:TPS整合型模式之驗證分析
論文名稱(外文):An Integrated Model for Toyota Production System: Analysis and Confirmation Study
指導教授:楊錦洲楊錦洲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Chow Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:工業與系統工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:153
中文關鍵詞:德菲法層級分析法豐田生產系統TPS整合型模式
外文關鍵詞:Toyota Production SystemDelphi MethodAnalytic Hierarchy Process.Integrate TPS model
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豐田生產系統(Toyota Production System, TPS)推行至今已超過50年,而在目前市場變化迅速的環境中,在企業界中依然能創造強力的競爭優勢,使得許多企業相繼導入TPS,但推行失敗的案例也不計少數,從文獻中可看出許多企業在導入TPS時,只著重在工具與方法等技術面上,卻忽略了人性面上的執行。本研究根據文獻的探討,瞭解TPS與TQM以及TPS與HRM之間的關係,並整合TQM及HRM之TPS整合型模式,且將此模式分為人性面、技術面與績效面,再以專家問卷的方式來對此模式進行驗證研究。
本研究透過國內外文獻的探討以及與國內TPS專家學者的討論之後,提出一個TPS整合型模式的架構,接著利用專家問卷調查的方式,透過德菲法篩選重要的評估項目,取得共識後,再利用層級分析法來對這些評估項目進行兩兩比較的作業,取得構面之間與評估項目之間的相對權重,瞭解哪些構面與項目是較重要的,並藉此驗證TPS整合型模式是可被接受的,研究結果也顯示出在人性面上,為TPS整合型模式中最重要的構面,在人性面之下的「尊重人性」中的「員工受到尊重」與「員工工作保障」為權重較高的兩項,顯示出在執行TPS上,員工的重要性,期望能提供業界在導入TPS時能有一參考之依據,並以不同的角度去切入,以落實推行TPS整合型模式,創造更高的企業競爭力。


Toyota Production System (TPS) has been implementing by Toyota company over 50 years, in the environment of repidly changing market, the TPS still created strong competitive advantage in the industrial sections, and encouraged a lot of enterprises to implement TPS, but there were a lot of cases fail to implement TPS. This research purpose is to investigate the relationship between TPS, HRM, and TQM. Based on this relationship, the integrated model of TPS will be developed and divides into human dimension, technical dimension and performance dimension. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and sent to TPS’ experts. The experts determine the most important items from the questionnaire. After receiving the questionnaire back from the experts, the data will be analyzed using Delphi Method to determine the important items and eliminate the less important one based on mean value. These important items will be compared using AHP technique to calculate the weight value of each important item. The AHP technique also used to build the TPS model, which consists of 41 items. The results of this research can give useful suggestions to the industries who want to implement TPS, and different spoint of view to implemente integrate TPS model, creating a higher competitiveness of enterprises.

目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究流程 3
1.4 研究架構 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
2.1 豐田生產系統 5
2.1.1 豐田生產管理之緣起 6
2.1.2 豐田生產管理之內涵 7
2.1.3 豐田生產管理之兩大支柱:「Just-in-time」與「自働化」 13
2.1.4 小結 19
2.2 豐田生產系統與人力資源管理的關係 19
2.2.1 人力資源系統 20
2.2.2 HRM在TPS之下的特色 21
2.2.3 小結 26
2.3 豐田生產系統與全面品質管理的關係 27
2.3.1 全面品質管理 27
2.3.2 TQM在TPS之下的特色 31
2.3.3 小結 37
第三章 研究架構與方法 38
3.1 研究對象 38
3.2 研究方法 38
3.3 德菲法與層級分析法理論依據 39
3.3.1 德菲法 39
3.3.2 德菲法的假設與步驟 40
3.3.3 層級分析法 43
3.3.4 層級分析法的假設與步驟 44
3.4 設計問卷與調查方式 51
3.5 各構面之評估項目 55
3.6 評估項目架構建立 61
第四章 資料分析 65
4.1 問卷回收之情形 65
4.2 調查結果分析-德菲法問卷 65
4.2.1 各構面之資料分析 66
4.2.2 各構面之評估項目 76
4.3 調查結果資料分析-AHP問卷 78
4.3.1 構面分析 78
4.3.2 綜合權重分析 91
4.3.3 整體一致性分析 94
第五章 結論與建議 99
5.1 研究結論 99
5.2 研究貢獻 100
5.3 研究限制 100
5.4 研究建議 101
參考文獻 102
附錄一 問卷內容 111
附錄二 權重分析表(Excel) 128


圖目錄
圖 1 1 研究流程圖 3
圖 2 1豐田生產制度架構屋(Liker, 2004) 19
圖 2 2 官僚制度比較表, Adler(1999) 23
圖 2 3 問題解決屋,Liker and Hoseue(2010) 24
圖 2 4 TQM之發展歷程,楊錦洲(1997) 29
圖 3 1 結合德菲法與AHP分析程序圖(本研究整理) 39
圖 3 2 TPS整合型模式AHP階層結構圖 64
圖 4 1 TPS整合型模式之AHP層級結構圖(含權重) 98

表目錄
表 2 1 豐田汽車重要紀事 7
表 2 2 傳統生產模式與混合生產模式比較表 15
表 2 3 不同學者對於HRM在TPS的要素項目 25
表 2 4 TQM與Lean概念比較表 36
表 2 5 不同學者對於HRM在Lean的要素項目 36
表 3 1 層級分析法評估尺度意義及說明 47
表 3 2 隨機指標對應表 50
表 3 3 TPS之技術面與人性面分析 52
表 3 4 第一階段德菲問卷形式 53
表 3 5 第二階段德菲問卷形式 54
表 3 6 層級分析問卷形式 54
表 3 7 尊重人性評估項目表 55
表 3 8 HRM推行評估項目表 56
表 3 9 TQM推行評估項目表 57
表 3 10持續改善評估項目表 58
表 3 11 JIT評估項目表 59
表 3 12自働化評估項目表 59
表 3 13精實流程評估項目表 60
表 3 14 績效評估項目表 61
表 3 15 TPS整合型模式評估項目表 62
表 4 1 發放對象分類表 65
表 4 2 「尊重人性」德菲法評估結果 66
表 4 3 「HRM推行」德菲法評估結果 68
表 4-4 「TQM推行」德菲法評估結果 69
表 4 5「持續改善」德菲法評估結果 70
表 4 6 「JIT」德菲法評估結果 72
表 4 7 「自働化」德菲法評估結果 73
表 4 8「Lean Process」德菲法評估結果 74
表 4 9 「Performance」德菲法評估結果 75
表 4 10 德菲階段整體重要度排名 76
表 4 11 評估項目表 77
表 4 12 TPS整合性模式-構面成對比較矩陣表 78
表 4 13 TPS整合性模式-構面權重表 78
表 4 14 人性面-構面成對比較矩陣表 79
表 4 15人性面-構面權重表 79
表 4 16 技術面-構面成對比較矩陣表 80
表 4 17 技術面-構面權重表 80
表 4 18 績效面-構面成對比較矩陣表 81
表 4 19 績效面-構面權重表 81
表 4 20 尊重人性-子構面成對比較矩陣重表 81
表 4 21 尊重人性-子構面權重表 82
表 4 22HRM推行-子構面成對比較矩陣表 83
表 4 23HRM推行-子構面權重表 83
表 4 24 TQM推行-子構面成對比較矩陣表 84
表 4 25 TQM推行-子構面權重表 84
表 4 26 持續改善-子構面成對比較矩陣表 85
表 4 27 持續改善-子構面權重表 85
表 4 28 JIT-子構面成對比較矩陣表 86
表 4-29 JIT-子構面權重表 86
表 4 30自働化-子構面成對比較矩陣表 87
表 4 31 自働化-子構面權重表 87
表 4 32 Lean Process-子構面成對比較矩陣表 88
表 4 33 Lean Process-子構面權重表 88
表 4 34 QCD -子構面成對比較矩陣表 89
表 4 35 QCD -子構面權重表 89
表 4 36 顧客滿意度 -子構面成對比較矩陣表 90
表 4 37 顧客滿意度 -子構面權重表 90
表 4 38 構面一致性比率表 91
表 4 39 第二層評估項目之重要度排序 91
表 4 40 第三層評估項目之重要度排序 92
表 4 41 第四層評估項目之重要度排序 93
表 4 42第三層整體一致性比率 94
表 4 43第四層整體一致性比率 95
表 4-44 階層權重表 96


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中文部分
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