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研究生:蘇哲宏
研究生(外文):Jhe-Hone Su
論文名稱:視訊品質改善之鄰近掃描線像素相關性演算法設計與實現
論文名稱(外文):Video Quality Improvement of Adjacent Pixel Scan Lines Algorithm Design and Implementation
指導教授:陳碧東
指導教授(外文):Pi-Tung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:清雲科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
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本研究目的是為了改善畫面影像因交錯式畫面所產生不良的影像情況,例如邊緣鋸齒化、淚滴效應、邊緣模糊以及色斑…等。並且在直接合併法之去交錯架構下設計相鄰掃描線像素相關性演算法下做各種的實驗比較,最後透過各種演算法的不同畫面實驗證明,能有效改善其影像的不良情況並有效提昇影像品質。
我們將去交錯後之影像中的掃描線像素訊號做線性運算處理,使用Verilog HDL將本演算法於FPGA中實現相鄰兩線平均運算法、拉普拉斯運算法、巴特沃斯運算法等以及其它相關的延伸方式做即時的影像處理並實現,由於影像畫面是由觀賞者作主官意識的畫面判斷,所以是用直接觀看畫面的主觀角度比較處理前後影像畫面品質。
Purpose of this study is to improve the screen image produced by interlaced picture bad image, such as jagged edges of, teardrop effect, edge blur and stain ... and so on. Direct Merger Law and the architecture design to cross the adjacent scanning line pixel correlation algorithm to do under the various experiments, the final image through a variety of experiments with different algorithms that can effectively improve the image of the bad situation and to effectively improve the image quality.
We will go after interlaced images in a linear scan line pixel signal processing operations, using Verilog HDL to implement this algorithm in the FPGA computing an average of two adjacent line method, Laplace algorithms, Butterworth algorithms and other extension methods and other relevant real-time image processing to do and achieve, because the screen image viewer decide by the official Yi Shi picture Panduan, it is directly compared subjective point of view screen images before and after picture quality.
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目錄
中文摘要 ·························································· i
英文摘要 ······························································· ii
誌謝 ···································································· iii
目錄 ···································································· iv
表目錄 ·································································· vii
圖目錄 ·································································· viii
第一章 緒論 ······························································ 1
1.1 前言 ································································· 1
1.2 研究目的與動機 ······················································· 11
1.3 本文結構 ················································································································ 12
第二章影像品質改善原理及說明介紹 ··················································································· 13
2.1數位電視影像處理介紹 ························································································· 14
2.1.1 Y/C分離原理 ······························································································· 16
2.1.2 去交錯種類 ································································································· 17
2.1.2.1 空間域去交錯處理(Spatial Domain Processing) ···························· 18
2.1.2.2 時間域去交錯處理(Temporal Domain Processing) ························ 19
2.1.2.3 結合空間域與時間域去交錯處理(Spatial-temporal Domain
Processing) ···················································································· 21
2.1.3 3D影像技術 ······························································································· 22
2.2 影像增強技術 ········································································································ 23
2.2.1 平均濾波器(Averaging Filter) ···································································· 23
2.2.2中值濾波器(Median Filter) ·········································································· 24
2.2.3 拉普拉斯(Laplacian) ··················································································· 26
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2.2.4梯度法(Gradient)·························································································· 28
2.2.5鈍化遮罩(Unsharp Masking) ······································································· 29
2.3本文提出之邊緣強化法 ························································································· 30
2.3.1巴特沃斯低通濾波器(Butterworth lowpass filter,BLPF) ························ 31
2..3.2五線對角交叉平均運算法 ········································································· 32
2.4 影像判斷準則 ········································································································ 33
2.5本文研究方式 ········································································································ 34
第三章 硬體架構設計與實現 ································································································· 35
3.1 環境架構 ················································································································ 35
3.2 系統設計 ················································································································ 37
3.3 相鄰掃描線相關性演算法設計 ············································································ 40
3.3.1 相鄰兩線平均 ····························································································· 42
3.3.2拉普拉斯運算法 ························································································ 43
3.3.3巴特沃斯運算法 ························································································ 45
3.3.4 H型平均運算法 ························································································ 46
3.3.5邊緣基礎平均運算法 ················································································ 48
3.3.6五線對角交叉平均運算法 ······································································· 50
3.4巴特沃斯運算法+五線對角交叉平均運算法 ················································ 53
第四章 實驗結果 ····················································································································· 55
4.1 實驗環境 ················································································································ 56
4.2 實驗結果 ················································································································ 56
4.2.1 線重複法架構之實驗結果 ········································································· 56
4.2.1.1 測試影像:路燈 ·············································································· 58
4.2.1.2 測試影像:F1賽車 ········································································· 61
4.2.1.3 測試影像:海豚 ·············································································· 65
4.2.1.4 測試影像:國旗 ·············································································· 68
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4.2.1.5 測試影像:沙漠 ·············································································· 71
4.2.1.6 測試影像:火車 ·············································································· 73
4.3 實驗結果分析 ································································································ 77
第五章 結論與未來展望 ········································································································· 78
5.1 結論 ························································································································ 78
5.2 未來展望 ················································································································ 79
參考文獻 ········································································································· 80
簡歷 ·············································································································· 83
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表目錄
表1.1類比電視與數位電視關係 ······························································································ 2
表3.1相鄰兩線平均法運算架構 ························································································· 42
表3.2拉普拉斯運算法運算架構 ························································································· 43
表3.3巴特沃斯運算法運算架構 ························································································· 45
表3.4 H型平均運算法運算架構 ························································································· 46
表3.5邊緣基礎平均運算架構 ····························································································· 48
表3.6五線平均運算法架構 ·································································································· 51
表3.7巴特沃斯運算法+五線對角交叉平均運算法 ······················································· 53
表4.1鄰近掃描線像素相關性演算法設計種類 ········································································ 57
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圖目錄
圖1.1世界各國類比電視顯示標準分布圖 ·············································································· 4
圖1.2交錯式掃描格式 ·············································································································· 5
圖1.3循序式掃描格式 ·············································································································· 6
圖1.4常見之平面電視訊號流程圖 ·························································································· 7
圖1.5交錯技術演算法 ·············································································································· 8
圖1.6去交錯演算法分類圖 ······································································································ 8
圖1.7動態向量圖 ···················································································································· 10
圖2.1 NTSC信號之Y、C頻譜 ··························································································· 16
圖2.2水平濾波器 ··················································································································· 17
圖2.3 3D梳形濾波器 ·············································································································· 17
圖2.4線重複法 ······················································································································· 19
圖2.5直接合併法 ··················································································································· 20
圖2.6垂直-時間性插補 ··········································································································· 21
圖2.7 3×3平均濾波器 ············································································································· 24
圖2.8中值濾波常用視窗和對應的圖形 ················································································ 25
圖2.9拉普拉斯濾波器遮罩架構 ···························································································· 27
圖2.10 3×3的像素區域 ··········································································································· 29
圖2.11 2×2羅伯特交叉梯度運算子遮罩 ··············································································· 29
圖2.12 3×3索貝爾運算子遮罩 ······························································································· 30
圖2.13從1到4階數的濾波器徑向剖面圖 ······································································· 31
圖2.14階數為1,2,5以及20的BPLF的空間表示 ······························································· 32
圖2.15五線對角交叉平均運算法 ·························································································· 32
圖3.1 硬體設計環境 ·············································································································· 35
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圖3.2 Altera DE2 FPGA開發板 ······························································································ 36
圖3.3 系統方塊圖 ·················································································································· 37
圖3.4 YCbCr to RGB轉換 ······································································································ 38
圖3.5 YCbCr to RGB硬體架構圖 ·························································································· 39
圖3.6 Line Buffer實現架構 ·································································································· 41
圖3.7相鄰兩線平均法 ·········································································································· 42
圖3.8拉普拉斯運算法 ·········································································································· 44
圖3.9拉普拉斯運算法3×3矩陣示意圖 ············································································ 44
圖3.10巴特沃斯運算法 ········································································································ 45
圖3.11 H型平均運算法 ····························································································· 47
圖3.12 H型平均運算法示意圖 ·················································································· 47
圖3.13邊緣基礎平均運算法 ····················································································· 49
圖3.14邊緣基礎平均運算法示意圖 ·········································································· 50
圖3.15五線對角交叉平均運算法 ·············································································· 51
圖3.16五線對角交叉平均運算法示意圖 ·································································· 52
圖3.17巴特沃斯運算法+五線對角交叉平均運算法 ··············································· 54
圖4.1 系統實驗平台 ···································································································· 55
圖4.2 實驗流程圖 ···················································································································· 56
圖4.3 4.2.1節之測試影片 ····························································································· 57
圖4.4 測試影像:路燈 ····················································································· 58、59
圖4.5 圖4.4測試影像局部放大結果 ········································································· 60
圖4.6 測試影像:F1賽車 ·················································································· 61、62
圖4.7 圖4.6測試影像局部放大結果 ········································································ 63
圖4.8圖4.6測試影像局部放大結果 ·················································································· 64
圖4.9測試影像:海豚 ······················································································ 65、66
圖4.10圖4.9測試影像局部放大結果 ······································································· 67
x
圖4.11測試影像:國旗 ···················································································· 68、69
圖4.12圖4.11測試影像局部放大結果 ····································································· 70
圖4.13測試影像:沙漠 ···················································································· 71、72
圖4.14圖4.13測試影像局部放大結果 ······································································ 72
圖4.15測試影像:火車 ···················································································· 73、74
圖4.16圖4.15測試影像局部放大結果 ·············································································· 75
圖4.17圖4.15測試影像局部放大結果 ·············································································· 76
80
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