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研究生:沈嘉莉
研究生(外文):Shen Jia-li
論文名稱:論漢語成語中動物的譬喻用法---以馬為例
論文名稱(外文):Conceptual Metaphor Blending in Mandarin Animal Idioms---A Case Study of Ma‘Horse’
指導教授:李子瑄李子瑄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li Zi-xuan
口試委員:曹逢甫王藹玲
口試委員(外文):Tsao Feng-fuWang Ai-ling
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:漢語語言與文化「馬」成語概念譬喻理論概念融合理論薩丕爾—沃爾夫假說
外文關鍵詞:Mandarin Chineselanguage and culturema—idiomsConceptual Metaphor TheoryConceptual Blending TheorySapir-Whorf Hypothesis
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本文研究宗旨在於透過研究「馬」在漢語成語中的意象,來印證現實物體
「馬」在文化中的對應關係。本文蒐集「馬」在漢語成語中動物的譬喻用法作為
本文的研究材料。文中先找出「馬」在漢語成語中的語意分子並將其分類,隨後
討論這些語意分子背後所隱藏的文化意義。我們發現漢語的外在語言形式及其內
在文化關係是密不可分,這點也驗證了薩丕爾—沃爾夫假說(Sapir-Whorf
Hypothesis)。
對大多數人而言,譬喻只是一種詩意的想像與修辭性誇示的技巧。然而,
根據Lakoff and Johnson (1980) 的概念譬喻理論(Conceptual Metaphor Theory)
基礎來說明「馬」在漢語成語中的譬喻並非僅為修辭法。我們的思維方式、經驗、
日常所為多半具有譬喻的關聯性。換言之,「馬」在漢語成語中,存在著一種連
貫的概念組織。
本文藉由Fauconnier (1997)所提出的心理空間理論(Mental Space Theory)
為基礎來探討「馬」在漢語成語中動物的譬喻運作過程。更精確地說,研究中使
用概念融合理論(Conceptual Blending Theory)作為研究方法來討論這個議題。本
文認為譬喻的意義往往透過上下文(context)的篇章結構而形成意念的融合。在
心理空間架構下,先分出輸入空間I和II,然後找出兩個心理空間之間的共同點,
當這些成分融合之後,融合完成的整體空間概念即為譬喻的真正文化意涵。

This study aims to reveal conceptual metaphor in Mandarin animal idioms in the
light of ma ‘horse’. I first classify them according to their semantic molecules, then
turn to explore the related culture. I find that the relationship between Mandarin and
its culture is very close and it fits in with the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
Metaphor is for most people a device of the poetic imagination and the
rhetorical flourish. According to Lakoff and Johnson’s Conceptual Metaphor Theory
(1980), the metaphorical use of ma—idioms can be found that they are not just the
rhetorical flourish. The way we think, what we experience, and what we do every day
is very much a matter of metaphor. In other wards, there is a coherent conceptual
organization underlying all these idioms of ma ‘horse’.
Using Fauconnier’s Mental Space Theory (1997), and discussing the horse’s
operation of conceptual metaphor in Mandarin animal idioms, it has been shown that
the process of metaphorical meaning construction is a context-based process.
Specifically speaking, this thesis regards Conceptual Blending Theory as the research
method to discuss questions of this topic. I first set up two input spaces which contain
the elements from the context, and then find out the general features which are
common to the two input spaces in idioms. After the data from two input spaces
blends together, the output of the blended space is the cultural meaning of metaphor.

Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iii
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii

Chapter1 Introduction
1.1 Rationale 2
1.2 Motivation 3
1.3 Objectives 5
1.4 Defining the subject of the present research 5
1.4.1 The concept of ma ‘horse’ 6
1.4.2 Idioms and other figurative language 6
1.4.3 A brief history of metaphor 7
1.4.4 The range of the research 9
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 11

Chapter2 Literature Review: Theoretical Background
2.1 Language and Culture 12
2.1.1 Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 13
2.1.2 Hsieh’s Theory (2006a) 16
2.2 Conceptual Metaphor Theory 17
2.2.1 Lakoff and Johnson (1980) 18
2.2.2 Hsieh’s Theory (2006b) 22
2.3 Conceptual Blending 24
2.3.1 Fauconnier (1997) 24
2.3.2Tsao (2007) 28
2.4 Models of Metaphors 31
2.4.1 Structural Metaphors 31
2.4.2 Orientational Metaphors 32
2.4.3 Ontological Metaphors 36
2.5 Summary 39

Chapter 3 Methodology
3.1 Theoretical Basis 40
3.1.1 Application of Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 40
3.1.2 Application of Conceptual Mental Theory 41
3.1.3 Application of Conceptual Metaphor 41
3.2 Data Collection 42

Chapter 4 Findings and Discussion on Ma—Idioms
4.1 Semantic molecules of ma—Idioms 43
4.1.1 Ma ―idioms as a means of transportation 44
4.1.2 Ma ―idioms as a weapon of war 47
4.1.3 Ma ―idioms as indication of strength or power 49
4.1.4 Ma ―idioms as personality 50
4.1.5 Ma ―idioms as labor or diligence 53
4.1.6 Ma ―idioms as active motions and activities 54
4.1.7 Ma ―idioms as possession 55
4.1.8 Ma ―idioms as figure 56
4.1.9 The relationship between Chinese language and culture in ma—idiom 71
4.1.10 Summary 72
4.2 Applications of Blending Theory on ma—idioms 72
4.2.1 Ma ―idioms as transportation means in mental space 73
4.2.2 Ma ―idioms as a weapon of war in mental space 79
4.2.3 Ma ―idioms as strength or power in mental space 80
4.2.4 Ma ―idioms as personality in mental space 82
4.2.5 Ma ―idioms as labor / diligence in mental space 86
4.2.6 Ma ―idioms as active motions and activities in mental space 88
4.2.7 Ma ―idioms as possession in mental space 89
4.2.8 Ma ―idioms as figure in mental space 90
4.2.9 Summary 98
4.3 Discussion: Evidence for Conceptual Metaphors—Metaphorical Expressions for
Ma—Idioms are not Just the Rhetorical Flourish 98

Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 Concluding remarks 100
5.2 Significance 103
5.3 Suggestion for further study 104

Appendix 105

Reference 116

English Works:

Aristotle. The Poetics, (ed.) 1909. And trans. Stephen Halliwell, with Longinus, On
the Sublime, trans. W.H. Fyfe, and Demetrius, On Style, ed. and trans. Doreen C.
Innes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barcelona, Antonio. 2000. Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroads. Mouton de
Gruyter.
Breitinger, Eckhard. (ed.) 1996. Defining New Idioms and Alternative Forms of
Expression. Atlanta, GA
Carroll, D. W. 2004. Psychology of Language. United States of America: Wadsworth.
Chen Yong-zhen & Chen Shan-chi. 1992. Chinese Idioms and Their English
Equivalents. Taipei. Bookman Books Co., Ltd.
Cooper, T. C. 1999. Processing of idioms by L2 learners of English. TESOL
Quarterly, 33 (1), 233-262.
Corbett, E.J.P. 1971. Classic Rhetoric for the Modern Student. NY: Oxford University
Press.
Diranti, Alessandro. 1997. Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press.
Fauconnier, G. 1985. Metal Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural
Language. London. The MIT Press.
Fauconnier, G. 1997. Mappings in thought and language. Cambridge, UK:
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Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. 2002. The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the
Mind’s Hidden Complexities. New York. Basic Books.
Fromkin, V. & Rodman, R. 1998. An introduction to language. Boston: Thomson
Wadsworth.
Geeraerts, D. (ed.) 2006. Cognitive Linguistics: Basic Readings. Germany: Mouton de
Gruyter.
Glucksberg, S. 2001. Understanding figurative language: From metaphors to idioms.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hsieh, Ching-Yu. 2003. “The Corpora of Mandarin Chinese and German Animal
Fixed Expressions: A Cognitive Semantic Application.” University Centre for
Computer Corpus Research on Language Technical Papers, Special Issue.
England: The University of Birmingham, 18, 27-35.
Hsieh, Ching-Yu. 2006a. “A Corpus-based Study on Animal Expressions in Mandarin
Chinese and German.” Journal of Pragmatics. 38(12):2206-2222. [SSCU,
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A&HCI]
Hsieh, Ching-Yu. 2006b. “German culture in German emotion expressions: A study of
animal and plant fixed expressions.” Studies in International Cultures. 1-24.
Imaz, M. &Benyon, D. 2007. Designing with Blends: Conceptual Foundations of
Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Kövecses, Zoltan. 1986. Metaphors of Anger, Pride, and Love. Amsterdam and
Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Kövecses, Zoltan. 1990. Emotion Concepts. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Kövecses, Zoltan. 2002. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press.
Kövecses, Zoltan. 2005. Metaphor in Culture. Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff, George & Johnson, Mark. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lakoff, George & Turner, Mark. 1989. More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to
Poetic Metaphor. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. Chicago. The University
of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Langacker, Ranald. 2007. Ten Lectures on Cognitive Grammar. Yuan Gao and
Thomas Fuyin Li. (ed.) Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
Leezenberg, Michiel. 2001. Contests of Metaphor. Elsevier Science Ltd.
Linda & Roger Flavell. 1992. Dictionary of Idioms and Their Origins. London. Kyle
Cathie Limited.
Liu Yi. 1989. A Dictionary of Chinese Idioms with English Translation. Taipei.
Learning Publishing CO., LTD.
Michael, Rundell. 2002. Macmillan English Dictionary. Oxford. MacMillan
Publishers Limited
Miller, Elmer S. 1979. Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. N.J.: Prentice-Hall
Norrick, N. R. 1986. Stock Similes. Journal of Literary Semantic 15, 39-52.
Ortony, A. 1975. Why metaphors are necessary and not just nice. Educational Theory,
25, 45-53.
Oxford University Press. 1996. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Samovar, Larry A. Porter, Richard E. & McDaniel, Edwin R. 1998. Communication
Between Cultures. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Sapir, E. 1929. “The status of linguistics as a science.” Language, 5:207-14.
Sapir, E. 1929. “The status of linguistics as a science.” Language, 5:209.
Tsai, Shang-Yi. 2004. “Hanyu Xieyinci de Yuyi yu Yuyung Gongneng (漢語諧音詞
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的語意與語用功能).” Journal of Chinese Language Teaching. 1:2. Taipei,
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Chinese Works:

陳永楨., 陳善慈., 張同編著. 2005. 異口同聲 VS. Be of One Voice. 香港. 商務印
書館.
朱祖延編, 湖北大學語言研究室. 1985. 漢語成語大辭典. 河南. 河南人民出版
社.
朱耀沂. 2007. 成語動物學-鳥獸篇. 台北. 商周出版社.
王勤. 2006. 漢語熟語論. 濟南. 山東教育出版社.
葉曉紅. 2005. 漢英精編成語辭典2100 句. 台北. 漢宇國際文化有限公司.


Thesis:

Cheng, Li-chuan. 鄭麗娟. 1999. The Metonymy and Metaphor of Anger Expressions
in English and Chinese. MA program thesis in Fu Jen Catholic University.
Lin, Mon-mei. 林孟美. 2005. Animal and plant terms & their metaphorical
extensions. MA program thesis in National Tsing Hwa University.
Liu, Chen-chen. 劉甄珍. 2000. A Developmental Study of Color Association. MA
program thesis in Fu Jen Catholic University.
Tsai, Hui-ju. 蔡蕙如. 2008. Flower as a Conceptual Metaphor in Mandarin. MA
program thesis in Fu Jen Catholic University.
Yen, Chao-tai. 顏兆泰. 2000. A Semantic Study of Chinese Metaphors Derived from
Visual Perception. MA program thesis in Fu Jen Catholic University.


On-line Corpus:

教育部成語典
Dictionary of Chinese Idiom in Ministry of Education
http://dict.idioms.moe.edu.tw/
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