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研究生:廖梅珍
研究生(外文):LIAO, Mei-Chen
論文名稱:閱讀林布蘭晚期敘事畫(1661-1669)
論文名稱(外文):Reading Rembrandt's Late Historia
指導教授:張淑勤張淑勤引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHANG, Shu-Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:歷史研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:林布蘭黃金時代林布蘭時代敘事畫使徒保羅塔西陀粗筆觸奇維里斯
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林布蘭(Rembrandt van Rijn, 1606-1669)是十七世紀荷蘭藝術的代表人物,現代荷蘭人引以為傲的藝術家。從學者將荷蘭的十七世紀名之為「黃金時代」(the Golden Age)或「林布蘭的時代」(Rembrandt’s Time)即可看出十七世紀荷蘭的富庶和時代特色。林布蘭的成敗起落就在荷蘭最富庶的大城-阿姆斯特丹。1661年林布蘭完成一系列的宗教敘事畫,其中一幅以張目提眉的林布蘭塑造使徒保羅的形像,似乎隱約表明著自己對荷蘭宗教爭議的意見。同年林布蘭接受阿姆斯特丹市政廳委託《奇維里斯密謀》(The oath of Claudius Civilis and the Batavians in the sacred grove),他以忠於塔西陀(C. Tacitus)的歷史敘述加上自己晚年的粗筆觸(board brush)表現此幅歷史敘事畫,真實呈現奇維里斯(Claudius Civilis)的驚人面貌,竟讓阿姆斯特丹的市長們無法接受而退回要求重畫。在求真的藝術路上,林布蘭堅持自己的藝術風格,拒絕重畫的要求。這一年,林布蘭還著手一生中最後的的宗教敘事畫《浪子回頭》(The return of the Pordigal Son)。他將《浪子回頭》故事裡的前後細節組合在一幅畫中,是一幅融合人性而誠篤的作品。林布蘭似乎自1632年起即偏愛只出現在〈路加福音〉中的浪子比喻,即使到了63歲完成人生最後一幅宗教敘事畫作品時,主題仍舊是《浪子回頭》。將林布蘭個人的生命起落與浪子比喻做一連結,觀者更可體會畫家投射於畫中的心力。
緒論 1
第一章 師承與創新15
第一節 人生重大抉擇 (1606-1620)15
第二節 敘事畫的師承 (1620-1625)20
第三節 敘事畫的創新 (1625-1630)25

第二章 歷史敘事畫《奇維里斯的密謀》37
第一節 製作奇維里斯37
第二節 《奇維里斯密謀》的傳統印象51
第三節 被退的《奇維里斯》55

第三章 宗教敘事畫《使徒保羅》與《浪子回頭》59
第一節 受神恩典的《使徒保羅》59
第二節 林布蘭的告解-《浪子回頭》81

結論 107
附錄一 林布蘭生平年表111
附錄二 譯名對照表119
參考資料125
參考資料
壹、 圖像資料
一、 林布蘭的畫作
An elderly man as the apostle Paul. Ca.1659. Canvas, 102 x 85.5 cm. Bredius 297. London, The National Gallery
The apostle Bartholomew. 1661. Canvas, 86.7 x 75.6cm. Bredius 615. Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum
The apostle James the Major. 1661. Canvas, 90 x 78 cm. Bredius 617. Private collection.
The apostle James the Minor. 1661. Canvas, 95.3 x 82.6 cm. Bredius 629. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Jules Bache Collection, 1949.
The apostle Paul. Ca.1657. Canvas, 131.5 x 104.4 cm. Bredius 612. Washington, National Gallery of Art
The apostle Paul at his desk. 1629. Panel, 47.2 x 31.6 cm. Bredius 602. Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
The apostle Paul in the prison.1627. Panel, 72.8 x 60.3 cm.Bredius 601. Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie
The ass of Balaam protesting to its master. 1626. Panel, 65x47cm. Bredius 487. Paris, Musée Cognacq-Jay
The apostle Simon. 1661. Canvas, 98.3 x 79 cm. Bredius 616A. Zurich, Kunsthaus
Bathsheba with King David’s letter. 1654. Canvas, 142 x 142 cm. Bredius 521. Paris, Musée du Louvre
Christ driving the money changers from the Temple. Ca.1626. Panel, 43x33cm. Bredius 532. Moscow, Pushkin Museum.
The departure of the prodigal son. 1632 or 1633. Benesch 81. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Gemäldegalerie Alter Meister.
126
The departure of the prodigal son. 1649 or 1650. Benesch 651. Groningen, Groninger Museum voor Staden Lande.
The evangelist Matthew inspired by an Angel. 1661. Canvas, 96 x 81cm. Bredius 614. Paris, Musée du Louvre
Franciscan monk reading. 1661. Canvas, 82 x 66 cm. Bredius 307. Helsinki, Sinebrychoff Art Museum
The feast of Belshazzar. Ca.1635. Canvas, 167 x 209.5 cm. Bredius 497. London, National Gallery.
Hendrickje standing in the doorway. 1654. Canvas, 86 x 65 cm. Bredius 116. Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie
Hendrickje Stoffels as Flora. Ca. 1654. Canvas, 100 x 91.8 cm. Bredius 114. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Jewish Bride. Ca.1663. Canvas, 121.5 x 166.5 cm. Bredius 416. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Judas returning the thirty pieces of silver. 1629. Panel, 76 x 101 cm. Bredius 539A. Mulgrave Castle, private collection
The Leiden history painting. 1626. Panel, 90 x 121 cm. Bredius 460. Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De Lankenhal.
The martyrdom of St. Stephen. 1625. Panel, 89.5x123.5 cm. Bredius 531A. Lyon, Musée des Beaux-Arts.
The mill. 1648. Canvas, 87.5 x 105.5 cm. Not in Bredius. Washington, The National Gallery of Art.
“The night watch”or Officers and men of the company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq(1605-55) and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburgh(1600-52). 1642. Canvas (cut down), 363 x 437 cm. Bredius 410. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (on loan from the city of Amsterdam)
The oath of Claudius Civilis and the Batavians in the sacred grove. After 25 October 1661. Brown ink and wash, 19.6 x 18cm. Benesch 1058 recto and verso. Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München.
127
The oath of Claudius Civilis and the Batavians in the sacred grove. Ca.1661. Canvas, cut from the Original, 196 x 309cm. Bredius 482. Stockholm, Nationalmuseum.
Protrait of Rembrandt with gorget. 1634. Panel, 80.5 x 64 cm. Bredius 22. Kassel, Staatliche Museen Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alter Meister
Portrait of Saskia in a Straw Hat. 1633. Silverpoint, on vellum, 18.5x10.7cm. Benesch 427. Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinett.
The Prodigal Son among the swine. Ca. 1647 – 48. Pen drawing,16 × 23 cm. Benesch 601. London, British Museum.
The Prodigal Son with Loose Women. 1642. Pen and wash, 17.7 x 21 cm. Benesch 529. Basel (Private collection )
The Prodigal Son with Loose Women .1642 Pen and bistre, 18.5 x 22.2 cm. . Benesch 528a. Orléans, Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Rembrandt and Saskia as the prodigal son in the tavern . Ca.1635. Canvas, 161 x 131 cm. Bredius 30. Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alter Meister,
Rembrandt as a young painter in his Studio. Ca. 1626. Panel, 25 x 32 cm. Bredius 419. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts.
The return of the Prodigal Son. 1636. Etching, 15.6 x 13.7 cm, sheet: 15.9 x 14 cm. B 91. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum.
The return of the Prodigal Son. 1642. Pen and wash in bistre, 19 × 22.7 cm. Benesch 519. Haarlem, Teylers Museum.
The return of the Prodigal Son. 1644 or 1645. Benesch 562. Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van Beuningn.
The return of the Prodigal Son. 1655-56. Benesch 983. Paris, F. Lugt Collection, Fondation Custodia.
The return of the Prodigal Son. Ca.1656. Benesch 1011. London, Victoria and Albert Museum.
The return of the Prodigal Son. 1656. Benesch 1017. Dresden, Kupferstichkabinett, Gemäldegalerie Alter Meister.
The return of the Prodigal Son. 1658 or 1659. Benesch 1037. Vienna, Albertina.
128
The return of the prodigal son. 1661-1669. Canvas, 262 x 206 cm. Bredius 598. St. Petersburg, Hermitage.
The risen Christ. Ca. 1661. Canvas, 78.5 x 63 cm. Bredius 630. Munich, Alte Pinakothek,
Samson posing the riddle to the wedding guests. Ca. 1638. Canvas, 126.5 x 175.5 cm. Bredius 507. Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister.
Saskia laughing. 1633. Panel, 52.4 x 44 cm. Bredius 97. Dresden, Gemäldegalerie.
Self-portrait.1632. Panel, 64.4 x 47.6 cm. Bredius 17. Glasgow, Glasgow Museums, The Burrell Collection
Self-portrait. 1640. Canvas, 93 x 80 cm. Bredius 34. London, The National Gallery
Self-Portrait. 1658. Canvas, 131 x 102 cm. Bredius 50. New York, The Frick Collection.
Self-portrait. 1669. Canvas, 86 x 70.5 cm. Bredius 155. London, National Gallery
Self-Portrait as a Young Man. 1634. Canvas, 61 x 52 cm. Bredius 20. Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi
Self-Portrait as the apostle Paul. 1661. Canvas, 91 x 77 cm. Bredius 59. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum.
Self-portrait in a cap and fur-trimmed cloak.1634. Panel, 58.3 x 47.4 cm. Bredius 21. Berlin, Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemäldegalerie
Rembrandt. Self-portrait leaning on a stone sill. 1639. Etching 20.5 x 16.4 cm. B 21. London, British Museum
Self portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open. 1630. B 320. Etching and burin, 5.1 x 4.6 cm. Haarlem.
Self-portrait with a poodle.1631. Panel, 66.5 x 52 cm. Breduis 16. Paris.Musée du Petit Palais
Self- Portrait with Saskia. 1636. Etching 104 x 95 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
The stoning of St. Stephen.1635. Etchting. B 97. Amsterdam, Prentenkabinet, Rijksmuseum.
“The syndics . 1662. Canvas,191 x 279cm. Bredius 415. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
129
Three Couples of Soldiers and Women. 1635. Pen and brown ink, 17.3 x 15.5 cm. Benesch 100. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen zu.
Titus as a Franciscan monk. 1660. Canvas. 79.5 x 67.5 cm. Bredius 306. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Tobit accusing Anna of stealing the kid. 1626. Panel, 39.5 x 30 cm. Bredius 486. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum.
Two scholars disputing (St. Peter and St. Paul?). 1628. Panel, 72 x 58.3 cm. Bredius 423. Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria
The Virgin of Sorrows. c. 1661. Canvas, 107 x 81 cm. Bredius 397. Epinal, Musée Départmental d‘Art ancient et Contemporain
二、其他畫家畫作
Bast, Pieter. Map of Leiden. 1600. Engraving, hand-colored, 37.5 x 44.5 cm. Leiden, Riginaal Archief Leiden.
Dürer, Albrecht. . The Prodigal Son among the swine. 1497. Copper-plate, 26.1 × 20.2 cm. Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle.
____________. The Prodigal Son among the swine.1497. Pen drawing, 21.7 × 21.9 cm. London, British Museum.
Flinck, Govert. The oath of Claudius Civilis.1659. Drawing. Hamburg, Kunsthalle.
___________ and J. Ovens. The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis. Ca.1662. Canvas, 546 x 538cm. Sumowski 641. Amsterdam, Stichting Koninklijk Paleis.
Greco, El. The repentant Peter. c. 1600. Canvas, detail. Washington, The Phillips Collection.
Lastman, Pieter. The ass of Balaam protesting to its master. 1622. Panel, 41.3x60.3 cm. Jerusalem, Israel Museum.
Leyden, Lucas van. Last Judgment. 1527.Panel, 301 x 435 cm. Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal.
_______________. St. Peter and St. Paul. On the outside wings of The Judgment.
130
Lievens, Jan. Constantijn Huygens. c.1626-28. Panel. 99 cm × 84 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam,
Swanenburg Jacob Isaacsz. van. The harrowing of Hell. Oil on copper, 48.8 x 71.1 cm. Private collection.
Swanenburg, Willem Isaacsz. van. The repentant Peter, after Abraham Bloemaert. Engraving, detail. Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet.
Tempesta, Antonio and Otto van Veen. The oath of Claudius Civilis and the Batavians in the Sacred Grove. Ca.1611. Published in Otto van Veen, Batavorum cum Romanis bellum, Antwerp 1612. Etching, ca. 14.5 x 21cm. Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.
Vermeer, J. Girl with a pearl earring. c. 1665. Oil on canvas, 46,5 x 40 cm. The Hague, Mauritshuis
三、其他圖像參考資料
Benesch, Otto. The drawing of Rembrandt. Enlarged and edited by Eva Benesch. London: Phaidon, 1973, 6 vols. First edition London: Phaidon, 1954-57.
Bredius, Abraham. Rembrandt: the complete edition of the paintings, revised by Horst Gerson. London: Phaidon, 1969.
Dejardin, Ian A.C., Desmond Shawe-Taylor, and Giles Waterfield. Rembrandt to Gainsborough : Masterpieces from Dulwich Picture Gallery. London : Merrell Holberton Publishers, New York : American Federation of Arts, 1999.
Schapelhouman, Marijn. Dutch Drawings of the Seventeenth Century in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam : Artists Born between 1580 and 1600. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam London : In association with Merrell Holberton Publishers, 1998.
Schwartz, Gary, edited by. The Complete Etchings of Rembrandt. New York: Dover Publications, 1994.
Van Rijn, Rembrandt Harmenszoon, illustrated by. Rembrandt and the Bible 1606-1669. Hidde Hoekstra composition and ex.: Magna Books, 1990
131
_____________________________. Rembrandt Landscape Drawings. New York : Dover Pub., c1981.
_____________________________. Rembrandt: Life of Christ. Nashvill, Atlanta, London and Vancouver: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1990.
_____________________________. Rembrandt, Life of Christ. Nashville : T. Nelson Publishers, c1995.
貳、文字資料
一、西文部分
(一)專書
Adams, Ann Jensen. Rembrandt's Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter. Cambridge ;; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Ackley, Clifford S., in collaboration with Ronni Baer, Thomas E. Rassieur, and William W. Robinson. Rembrandt's Journey : Painter, Draftsman, Etcher. Boston : MFA Publications, c2003.
Ainsworth, M., and E. Haverkamp-Begemann, et al.. Art and Authoradiography: Insight into the Genesis of Paintings bye Rembrandt, Van Dyck and Vermeer. New York, 1982.
Alberti, Leon Battista; translated by Cecil Grayson; with an introduction and notes by Martin Kemp. On painting. London : Penguin Books, c1991.
Alpers, Svetlana. The Art of Describing : Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century. Chicago : University of Chicago Press,1983.
_____________. Rembrandt’s Enterprise: The Studio and the Market. Chicago and London, 1988.
Bailey, Anthony. Rembrandt’s House. Boston and London: Houghton Miffin, 1978.
Bal, Mieke. Reading “Rembrandt”: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
132
Benesch, Otto. Rembrandt; Biographical and Critical Study. New York: Skira, 1957.
Blankert, Albert, National Gallery of Art (U.S.), Detroit Institute of Arts., and Rijksmuseum (Netherlands). Gods, Saints, & Heroes : Dutch Painting in the Age of Rembrandt ; [Exhibition Held at the] National Gallery of Art, Washington; Detroit Institute of Arts; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1980.
______________, Ben Broos, Ernst van de Wetering, Guido Jansen and Willem van de Watering. The Impact of A Genius: Rembrandt, his Pupils and Followers in the Seventeenth Century. Amsterdam: Waterman Gallery, 1983.
Bockemühl, Michael. Rembrandt, 1606-1669: the mystery of the revealed form. Edited by Brigitte Hilmer ; English translation by Michael Claridge. Köln : Taschen, c2004.
Bomford, David, Christopher Brown, and Ashok Roy. Art in the Making: Rembrandt. London, 1988.
Boxer, C. R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800. New York: Penguin, 1990.
Brilliant, Richard. Portraiture. Cambridge, Mass., 1991.
Broos, B. P. J. Index to The Formal Sources of Rembrandt’s Art. Maarssen, 1997.
Brown, Christopher. Images of a Golden Past : Dutch Genre Painting of the 17th Century. New York: Abbeville Press, 1984.
________________, etc. Rembrandt : the Master & his Workshop. edited by Sally Salvesen. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1991.
Bruyn J. et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. I-III. The Hague, Boston, and London, 1982-1989.
Bryson, Norman, and Michael Ann Holly, and Keith Moxey, eds.. Visual Culture: Images and Interpretations. Hanover, NH.: University Press of New England, 1994.
Bugler, Caroline. Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Mayflower Books, 1979.
Burke, Peter, ed.by. New Perspectives on Historical Writing. Cambridge : Polity Pr, 1991.
__________. History and Social Theory. Cambridge : Polity Press, 1992.
__________. The Art of conversation. Cambridge : Polity Press, 1993.
__________. Varieties of Cultural History. Cambridge : Polity Press, c1997.
133
__________. Venice and Amsterdam: A Study of Seventeenth-Century Elites. Cambridge : Polity Press, 1994.
Chapman, H. Perry. Rembrandt’s Self-Portraits: A Study in Seventeenth-Century Identity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Chartier, Roger. Cultural History: Between Practices and Representations. Trans. by Lydia G. Cochrane. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988.
Clark, Kenneth, An introduction to Rembrandt. New York : Harper & Row, ?
———. An Introduction to Rembrandt. Don Mills, Ont.: Longman Canada, 1978.
———. Rembrandt and the Bible. London: British Broadcasting Corp., 1976.
———. Rembrandt, the Years of Success. London: British Broadcasting Corp., 1976.
———. Rembrandt and the Italian Renaissance. New York: New York University Press, 1966.
Combrich, E.H.. The Story of Art. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1972, 1978, 1984, 1989.
Crenshaw, Paul. Rembrandt's Bankruptcy : the Artist, his Patrons, and the Art Market in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Crew, Phyllis Mack. Calvinist Preaching and Iconoclasm in the Netherlands 1544-1569. Cambridge: University Press, 1978.
Davies, D. W. Dutch Influences on English Culture, 1558-1625. Washington D.C.:The Folger Shakespeare Library, 1979.
Davies, Karel, and Jan Lucassen, edited by. A Miracle Mirrored. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Davies, Martin. The Early Netherlandish School .London : National Gallery, c1945.
Durham, John I. The Biblical Rembrandt: Human Painter in a Landscape of Faith. Macon: Mercer University Press, 2004.
Dyrness, William A. Reformed Theology and Visual Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Field, D.M.. Rembrandt. Hoo : Grange Book, 2003.
Foster, Hal, ed.. Vision and Visuality. Seattle: Bay Press, 1988.
134
Franits, Wayne E. Dutch Seventeenth-Century Genre Painting : Its Stylistic and Thematic Evolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
———. Paragons of Virtue : Women and Domesticity in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Cambridge ;; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Freedberg, David and Jan De Vries, edited by. Art in History, History in Art: Studies in Seventeenth-century Dutch Culture. Santa Monica: the Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities; Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Friedländer, Max J. Landmarks in Art History: From Van Eyck to Bruegel. Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1981.
Fromentin, Eugène. The Masters of Past Time: Dutch and Flemish Painting From Van Eyck to Rembrandt. London: Phaidon Press, 1981.
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______. Rembrandt Paintings. New York: Reynal & Company, 1968.
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Haak, Bob. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, His Time. New York : H. N. Abrams, 1969.
_________. Rembrandt Drawings. Translated by Elizabeth Willems-Treeman. New York: The Overlook Press, 1976.
_________. The Golden Age : Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. New York : Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1984, 1996.
Haskell, Francis. History and Its Images: Art and the Interpretation of the Past. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1993.
Haverkamp-Bagemann, E. Rembrandt: The Nightwatch. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Heckscher, W. S. Rembrandt’s “Anatomy of Dr. Nicolaas Tulp”: An Iconological Study. New York, 1958.
Heel, S. A. C. Dudok van. The Rembrandt Papers: Documents, Drawings and Prints. Amsterdam, 1987.
135
Held, Julius S. Rembrandt Studies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Hinterding, Erik, Ger Luijten and Martin Royalton-Kisch. Rembrandt the Printmaker. London: The British Museum Press, 2001.
Hisa, R. Po-Chia, and Henk van Nierop, edited by. Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Hochstrasser, Julie. Still Life and Trade in the Dutch Golden Age. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007.
Hollander, Martha. An Entrance for the Eyes : Space and Meaning in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Honour, Hugh, and John Fleming. A World History of Art. London: Laurence King Publishing, 1999.
Huizinga, Johan. Dutch Civilization in the Seventeenth Century and Other Essays. Trans. by Arnold J. Pomerans. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co.,1968.
Henri, Robert. The Art Spirit. Reprint, New York: Harper & Row, 1984. Originally published: Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1923.
Hunt, Lynn. The New Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Israel, Jonathan Irvin. Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 1585-1740. Oxford : Clarendon Press, c.1989, 1991.
_____________. The Dutch Republic : its rise, greatness, and fall, 1477-1806 . Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1995.
Kahr, Madlyn Millner. Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Harper & Row, 1978.
Lambert, Audrey M. The Making of the Dutch Landscape. London and New York: Seminar Press, 1971.
Landsberger, Franz,. Rembrandt, the Jews and the Bible. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1961.
Laurie, A. P. The Brushwork of Rembrandt and His School. London, 1932.
Lecler, Joseph. Toleration and the Reformation. Translated by T. L. Westow. New York: Association Press, 1960.
136
Levinson-Lessing, V. F. and Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn,. Rembrandt : A Journey of the Mind. Hoo, Rochester: Grange Books, 2003.
Mannering, Douglas. The Art of Rembrandt, New York: Gallery Books, 1989.
Mee, Charles L. Jr. Rembrandt's Portrait : a biography. New York : Simon and Schuster, c1988
McQueen, Alison. The Rise of the Cult of Rembrandt. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2003.
Motley, John Lothrop, The Rise of the Dutch Republic. New York : Harper, 1868.
Muizelaar, Klaske and Derek Phillips. Picturing Men and Women in the Dutch Golden Age : Paintings and People in Historical Perspective. New Haven : Yale University Press, c2003
Münz, Ludwig. Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn. New York : Herry N. Abrahms, 1984.
Nadler, Steven. Rembrandt’s Jews. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 2004.
Nash, J. M. The Age of Rembrandt and Vermeer; Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1972.
North, Michael. Art and Commerce in the Dutch Golden Age. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
Nouwen, Henri J. M. The Return of the Prodigal Son : A Story of Homecoming. New York: Doubleday, 1994.
O‘Neill, John P. and Rosanne Wasserman, edited by. Art and Autoradiography. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982.
Ornstein-Van Slooten, Eva. The Rembrandt house : the prints, drawings and paintings. Translated by Eva Ornstein-Van Slooten; Marijke Holtrop; Peter Schatborn; Harry Lake. Zwolle ; Amsterdam : Waanders Publishers : Museum Het Rem, c1991.
Panofsky, Erwin. Perspective as Symbolic Form. New York : Zone Books, c1991.
Parker, Geoffrey. The Dutch Revolt. London: Allen Lane, 1977.
_____________, and Lesley M. Smith, edited by. The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. London and New York: Routlege, 1997.
Podro, Michael. The Critical Historians of Art. New Haven and London: Yale university Press, 1982.
137
Prak, Maarten. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age. Translated by Diane Webb. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Price, J. L. Culture and Society in the Dutch Republic During the 17th Century. New York: Charles Scribner‘s Sons, 1974.
_________. Holland and the Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
Regin, Deric. Traders, Artists, Burghers: A Cultural History of Amsterdam in the 17th Century. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1976.
Riegl,Alois. The Group Portraiture of Holland. Translations by Evelyn M. Kain and David Britt. Los Angeles: Getty Reseach Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1999.
Rijn, Rembrandt Harmenszoon van and Abraham Bredius . The Paintings of Rembrandt. Vienna, New York: Phaidon Press; Oxford University Press, 1937.
Rose, Barbara. The Golden Age of Dutch Painting. New York: F.A. Praeger, 1969.
Rosenberg, Jakob. Rembrandt: Life & Work. London: Phaidon Publishers; distributed by New York Graphic Society Publishers, Greenwich, Conn, 1964.
_____________, Seymour Slive, and E. H. Kuile. Dutch Art and Architecture: 1600-1800. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1967.
Ruestow, Edward G. The Microscope in The Dutch Republic: the Shaping of Discovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Scallen, Catherine B. Rembrandt, reputation, and the practice of connoisseurship. Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press, c2004
Schama, Simon. The Embarrassment of Riches : an interpretation of Dutch culture in the Golden Age. New York : Knopf : Distributed by Random House, c1987.
_____________. Landscape and Memory. Stockholm: Gedin, 1997.
_____________. Rembrandt’s Eyes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.
Schenkeveld, Maria A. Dutch Literature in the Age of Rembrandt : Themes and Ideas. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : J. Benjamins, 1991.
Schneider, Cynthia P. Rembrandt's Landscapes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
____________. The Rembrandt Book. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2006.
138
Schupbach, William. The Paradox of Rembrandt’s “Anatomy of Dr. Tulp.” London, 1982.
Schwartz, Gary. Rembrandt: His Life, His Painting. New York and London, 1985.
Simmel, Georg. Rembrandt : an essay in the philosophy of art. Translated and edited by Alan Scott and Helmut Staubmann ; with the assistance of K. Peter Etzkorn. New York ; London : Routledge, 2005.
Slatkes, Leonard J. Vermeer and His Contemporaries. New York: Abbeville Press, 1981.
Slive, Seymour. Rembrandt and His Critics 1630-1730. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1953.
____________. Realism and Symbolism in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Painting. New York: American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; Garland Pub., 1961
____________. Dutch Painting 1600-1800. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
Spicer, Joaneath A., Lynn Federle Orr , Marten Jan Bok, Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore,Md.), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco., and National Gallery (Great Britain). Masters of Light : Dutch Painters in Utrecht during the Golden Age. Baltimore ; [San Francisco] ; New Haven: Walters Art Gallery ; Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco ;; Distributed by Yale University Press, 1997.
Stoichita, Victor I. The Self-aware Image: An Insight into Early Modern Meta-painting. Trans. by Anne-Marie Glasheen. Cambridge, 1997.
Strauss, Walter L., and Marjon van der Meulen, with S. A. C. Dudok van Heel and P. J. M. de Baar. The Rembrandt Documents. New York, 1979.
Sutton, Peter C., Albert Blankert, Rijksmuseum (Netherlands), Museum of Fine Arts,Boston., and Philadelphia Museum of Art. Masters of 17th-Century Dutch Landscape Painting. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1987.
Tacitus,Cornelius. History, Book 4. New York: The Modern Library, 1942.
Tümpel, Christian. Rembrandt. Antwerp, 1986, 1993.
_______________ and Astrid Tümpel. Rembrandt : Images and Metaphors. London: Haus Publishing, 2006.
Vasari, Giorgio. The Lives of the Artists. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968.
Waal, H. van de. Steps towards Rembrandt. Trans. by Wardle, Patricia and Alan Griffiths. Amsterdam, London: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1974.
139
Wallace, Robert. The World of Rembrandt, 1606-1669. Time-Life Books the eds. of. New York : Time, c1972
Weintraub, Karl J. Visions of Culture: Voltaire; Guizot; Burckhardt; Lamprecht; Huizinga; Ortega Y Gasset. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966.
Westermann, Mariët. The Art of the Dutch Republic 1585-1718. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1996.
Wetering, Ernst van de. Rembrandt: The Painter at Work. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.
___________________. et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. IV. Berlin: Springer, 2006.
Wheelock, Arthur K. Jr., and Adele F. Seeff. The Public and Private in Dutch Culture of the Golden Age. Newark: University of Delaware Press ; London: Associated University Presses, 2000.
___________________, and Peter C. Sutton. Rembrandt’s Late Religious Portraits. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005.
White, Christopher. Rembrandt. London : Thames and Hudson, 1984.
Wilson, Charles. The Dutch Republic and the Civilisation in the Seventeenth Century. New York and Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968.
Wright, Christopher. The Dutch Painters : 100 Seventeenth Century Masters. Woodbury, New York.: Barron's, 1978
Zumthor, Paul. Daily life in Rembrandt's Holland. Translated from the French by Simon Watson Taylor. Stanford : Stanford University Press, 1994.
(二)期刊論文
Adler, Daniel. "Painterly Politics: WÖlfflin, Formalism and German Academic Culture, 1885–1915." Art History 27, no. 3 (06, 2004): 431-456.
Bille, C.. ―Rembrandt and Burgomaster Jan Six.‖ Apollo (1967): 160-65.
140
Binstock, Benjamin. "Seeing Representations; Or, the Hidden Master in Rembrandt's "Syndics"." Representations no. 83 (Summer, 2003): 1-37.
Broos, B. P. J.. ―Rembrandt and Lastman‘s Coriolanus: The History Piece in the Seventeenth Century, Theory and Practice.‖ Simiolus (1975): 199-228.
Brown, C., and J. Plesters. ―Rembrandt‘s Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels.‖ Apollo (1977): 286-91.
Cahn, Robert, Barbara Hoffert, Eric Bryant, Wilda Williams, Ann Burns, Rebecca Miller, Nathan Ward, and Heather McCormack. "Rembrandt by Himself--and Others." Library Journal 124, no. 1 (10/15, 1999): 68.
Carroll, Margaret Deutsch. ―Rembrandt as Meditational Printmaker.‖ Art Bulletin 63, no. 4 (12, 1981): 585.
_____________________. ―Civic Ideology and Its Subversion: Rembrandt‘s Oath of Claudius Civilis. ‖ Art History vol. 9, no. 1 (3, 1986): 10-35.
Chapman, H. Perry. "Rembrandt's Reading: The Artist's Bookshelf of Ancient Poetry and History/Reframing Rembrandt: Jews and the Christian Image in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam." Art Bulletin 87, (06, 2005): 346-352.
De Jongh, E.. ―The Spur of Wit: Rembrandt‘s Response to an Italian Challenge.‖ Delta 12 (1969): 49-67.
Dekker, Jeroen J. H. "A Republic of Educators: Educational Messages in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Genre Painting." History of Education Quarterly 36, no. 2 (Summer, 1996): 155-182.
Dickey, Stephanie. "What Rembrandt Saw." Christian Century 117, no. 1 (06/21, 2000): 685.
Gombrich, E. H. "Portrait of the Artist as a Paradox. (Cover Story)." New York Review of Books 47, (01/20, 2000): 6.
Gordenker, Emilie E. S. "Rembrandt: Portraits in Print." Art Bulletin 88, no. 1 (03, 2006): 189-191.
Gorski, Philip S. ―The Mosaic Moment: An Early Modernist Critique of Modernist Theories of Nationalism.‖ AJS vol. 105, no. 5 (March, 2000): 1428-68.
141
Grafton, Anthony, and Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann. "Holland without Huizinga: Dutch Visual Culture in the Seventeenth Century." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 16, no. 2 (Autumn, 1985): 255-265.
Gray, Charles Edward. "A Measurement of Creativity in Western Civilization." American Anthropologist 68, no. 6 (Dec., 1966): 1384-1417.
Hartle, Terry W. "Staring Back into Rembrandt's Face and Life." Christian Science Monitor 92, (12/02, 1999): 19.
Hasenmueller, Christine. "Panofsky, Iconography, and Semiotics." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 36, no. 3, Critical Interpretation (Spring, 1978): 289-301.
Hollander, Martha. "Losses of Face: Rembrandt, Masaccio, and the Drama of Shame." Social Research 70, (2003///Winter, : 1327-1350.
Kakutani, Michiko. "Stripping Away the Myths and Fleshing Out the Life." New York Times 149, no. 5171 (11/23, 1999): E1.
Kimmelman, Michael. "Enter Rembrandt, Pursued by Rubens. (Cover Story)." New York Times Book Review 149, no. 5173 (12/12, 1999): 19.
Levine, Joseph M. "Erasmus and the Problem of the Johannine Comma." Journal of the History of Ideas 58, no. 4 (Oct., 1997): 573-596.
Mansfield, Bruce E. "Erasmus in the Nineteenth Century: The Liberal Tradition." Studies in the Renaissance 15, (1968): 193-219.
Milstein, Dana. "Gaspard De La Nuit: Humor, the Eau-Forte, and the Chiaroscuro Vignette." College Literature 30, no. 2 (2003/Spring, : 137.
Minnich, Nelson H. and W. W. Meissner. "The Character of Erasmus." The American Historical Review 83, no. 3 (Jun., 1978): 598-624.
Mobilio, Albert. "Rembrandt: Method Acting on Canvas." Fortune 140, no. 1 (12/06, 1999): 78-78.
Murray, John J. "The Cultural Impact of the Flemish Low Countries on Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century England." The American Historical Review 62, no. 4 (Jul., 1957): 837-854.
142
Poniewozik, James, Christopher John Farley, Terry Teachout, Michael Krantz, Steven Henry Madoff, and William Tynan. "Short Takes." Time 154, no. 2 (12/06, 1999): 119.
Rabb, Theodore K. "The Historian and the Art Historian Revisited." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14, no. 3 (Winter, 1984): 647-655.
Robinson, Franklin. ―A Note on the Visual Tradition of Balaam and His Ass.‖ Oud Holland 84 (1969): 167-96.
Schama, Simon. "The Siegen Affair." American Scholar 68, (1999/Autumn, : 13.
_____________ and Kent Jeffreys. "Correspondence." New Republic 221, no. 2 (12/27, 1999): 4-5.
Slive, Seymour. "Rembrandt and His Contemporary Critics." Journal of the History of Ideas 14, no. 2 (Apr., 1953): 203-220.
____________. ―The Young Rembrandt.‖ Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin 20 (1962): 120-49.
____________. ―Rembrandt‘s Self-Portrait in a Studio.”Burlington Magazine 106 (1964): 483-86.
Smith, David R.. ― ‗I Janus‘: Privacy and the Gentlemanly Ideal in Rembrandt‘s Portraits of Jan Six.‖ Art History II (Mar. 1988): 42-63.
Talley Jr., M. Kirby. "Bringing Rembrandt to Life." ARTnews 98, no. 1 (12, 1999): 130.
Van Gelder, J. G.. ―A Rembrandt Discovery.‖ Apollo 77 (1963): 371-72.
Vredeveld, Harry. "The Ages of Erasmus and the Year of His Birth." Renaissance Quarterly 46, no. 4 (Winter, 1993): 754-809.
Whitney, J. P. "Erasmus." The English Historical Review 35, no. 137 (Jan., 1920): 1-25.
Wickberg, Daniel. "What Is the History of Sensibilities‖ On Cultural Histories, Old and New." The American Historical Review. Vol. 112, no. 3 (June., 2007): 661-684.
Wilkin, Karen. "Bookshelf: A Master and His Rival." Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition 234, no. 10 (11/24, 1999): A16.
143
二、中文部分 (依照姓式筆畫順序)
(一)專書
Beckett, Wendy著,李惠珍、連惠幸譯,《繪畫的故事 : 悠遊西洋繪畫史》,台北 : 臺灣麥克,1998。
Combrich, E. H.著,雨云譯,《藝術的故事》,台北:聯經,1991。
Bonafoux,Pascal著,王鵬、陳祚敏 譯,《林布蘭 : 陰影中的亮光》,台北: 時報文化,1996 。
Bullock, Alan著,董樂山譯,《西方人文主義傳統》(The Humanist Tradition in the West),台北:究竟,2000.
Dash, Mike著,李芬芳譯,《鬱金香熱》(Tulipomania),台北:時報文化,2000。
Howells, Richard著,葛紅兵等譯,《視覺文化》(Visual Culture),桂林:廣西師範大學出版社,2007。
Huismann, Dénis著,欒棟、關寶艷譯,《美學》(Esthétique),台北:遠流,1990。
Loon, Hendrik Willem van,施誠 譯,《荷蘭共和國衰史》,石家莊 : 河北敎育,2002。
____,郭兵、曹秀梅、季廣志譯,《寬容》(Tolerance),台北:知書坊,2000。
Nouwen, Henri J. M著,徐成德譯,《浪子回頭》(The Return of the Prodigal Son: A Story of Homecoming),台北:校園書房,1998。
Tatarkiwicz, Wtadystaw著,劉文潭譯,《西洋六大美學理念史》,台北:聯經,民78。
Weber, Max著,康樂、簡惠美譯,《基督新教倫理與資本主義精神》(The Protestant Ethic
___,康樂、簡惠美譯,《宗教與世界:韋伯選集II》,台北:遠流,2000。
White, Christopher著,黃珮玲譯,《林布蘭》,台北:遠流,1995。
Wölfflin, Heinrich著,曾雅雲譯,《藝術史的原則》(Principles of Art History),台北:雄獅,民80。
144
Zuffi, Stefano著,郭菀玲譯,《林布蘭》,台北市: 貓頭鷹出版 : 家庭傳媒發行,2004。
花亦芬著,《林布蘭特與聖經─荷蘭黃金時代藝術與宗教的對話》,台北:三民,2008。
張淑勤,《低地國(荷比盧)史-新歐洲的核心》,台北:三民,2005。
______,〈荷蘭文化史家John Huizinga 的史學〉,《歷史與文獻》,台北:學生書局,1998,頁250-272。
郭繼生著,《藝術史與藝術批評》,台北:書林,1991。
《聖經》,香港:聖經公會,1977。
(二)學位論文
唐琳撰,〈荷蘭共和國的宗教寬容(1550-1650)〉,台北:輔仁大學歷史學碩士論文,1993。
參、 圖像資料 http://www.artnet.com/PDB/PublicLotDetails.aspx?lot_id=426181238&page=1 擷取時間:2009/06/29 http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/opr/t118/e2198?q=Rembrandt+van+Rijn&search=quick&pos=2&_start=1#firsthit 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.abcgallery.com/R/rembrandt/rembrandt.html 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.rembrandtpainting.net/complete_catalogue/start_history.htm 擷取日期:2009/09/05
145
http://www.artbible.info/art/rembrandt-biblical-work.html 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.wga.hu/index1.html 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.oilpaintingshop.com/rembrandt/ 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.o-bible.com/b5/int.html 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/aria/aria_assets/SK-A-4050?page=1&lang=en&context_space=&context_id= 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2005/rembrandt/rembrandt_ss4.shtm 擷取日期:2009/09/05 http://www.jstor.org/pss/860769 擷取日期:2009/09/05
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