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研究生:林姿瑩
研究生(外文):Lin, TZU-YING
論文名稱:臨床心理工作者的反思習慣和經驗與個案衡鑑信心和策略的相關
論文名稱(外文):The correlation of psychological clinician’s habit of reflection and experience on the confidence and strategies of assessment for client.
指導教授:柯永河柯永河引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:臨床心理學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:臨床心理工作者習慣心理學臨床工作經驗反思習慣
外文關鍵詞:Psychological clinicianHabit PsychologyClinical experienceReflective habit
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一位臨床心理工作者,身上肩負著兩項任務;其一是滿足社會大眾對醫療結果的期待,其二是要修得臨床工作專業能力,所以需不斷地、多方地學習。本研究的目的是要瞭解臨床心理工作者的臨床經驗長短與其反思習慣程度,是否與其工作策略內涵以及工作信心有關。為此目的本研究以習慣心理學的觀點自編一份「反思習慣量表」,及一份「不完整的個案資料」為研究工具,藉以探討臨床工作者在面對個案時,是以「危機性問題」為衡鑑工作取向,抑或以「一般背景功能水準性問題」為取向。O’Byrne 與 Goodyear (1997)的研究認為,和生手心理工作者比較起來,專家心理師較少專注於以危機取向的觀點(crisis-oriented aspects)來看待個案的問題,而會專注於較廣泛的個案功能性(level of functioning)的問題。
本研究共有45位研究參與者,女性34人,男性11人,並且他們皆是就讀心理系在學或已畢業的學生,以及具有臨床工作一年以上的經驗。本研究結果顯示,臨床工作經驗越長者,其反思習慣強度越低。而反思習慣程度越高的臨床工作者,在自評了解個案的信心則越高。若將「臨床工作經驗長短」及「反思習慣」分別同時與衡鑑信心求相關,則發現二者與衡鑑信心皆達顯著相關,而臨床工作經驗長短的相關性比反思習慣強度的相關性大。顯示臨床經驗和反思習慣二者需相輔相成,如此才可持續地提昇臨床工作者的工作表現與能力。本研究結果顯示,身為臨床心理工作者的臨床工作經驗的累積對其工作表現佔有不可忽視的重要角色。
最後,對本次研究所得的結果,筆者針對受試者的特質、研究工具、研究過程,和研究方法的限制,以及未能驗證的假設給予適當地討論和解釋,並對未來類似研究提出注意事項和建議。
As a clinical psychologist, one bears the society’s expectation of being able to effect a good treatment effects to his patients, and has a necessity to enhance himself continually to maintain his own professionalism, on the other hand. The purpose of this study is to explore how are clinical experiences and the strength of habit of reflection will be related to the strategies a clinician utilizes to assesses his patients and the amount of confidence he has in the clinical judgements he makes. For these purposes, the present study used a “reflective habits questionnaire” and a “short descriptions about a client in a crisis”, to examine how a psychological clinician assesses the client in the descrioption, and to observe what kind of assessment strategies he uses (a crisis assessment or a normal level of functioning), as well as how much confidence he has about the understanding he attains for the client in the crisis.

This study, involved 45 participants (11 male; 34 female), all of them majored in clinical psychology, and had clinical experiences for more than one year. The findings revealed that psychologists with more intensive clinical experiences had less reflective habits; that psychologists with more intensive reflective habits had more confidence in the evaluation they made. When clinical experiences and reflective habits were combined togethe to correlate with the confidence in the diagnosis made, the amount of confidient of correlation was elevated significantly. It was also suggested that the amount of clinical experiences seemed to have a higer correlation with confidence of diagnosis, made than the amount of reflecting habit.

Finally, how do the shortcomings stemming from the variables of participants’ characteristics, the nature of the instruments, used in the present study method and processes used in the study would affect the outcomes of the study were discussed. The way to improve shortcomings for future research are also proposed.
第一章 研究動機 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
第一節 習慣心理學 3
第二節 什麼是反思? 6
第三節 什麼是專家 15
第四節 專家和生手的差異 17
第五節 訓練的重要 24
第六節 反思在專業發展中的角色 27
第三章 研究方法 33
第一節 研究問題與研究假設 33
第二節 研究流程 36
第三節 研究對象 39
第四節 研究量表 40
第四章 正式研究 50
第一節 參與者人口基本變項 50
第二節 結果分析 52
第五章 結果討論與建議 58
第一節 研究假設的驗證 58
第二節 研究發現與討論 62
第三節 研究限制與建議 66
引用文獻 70
附錄 82
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1. 王春展(民86)。專家與生手間問題解決能力的差異,及其在教學上的啟示。教育研究資訊,5(2),80-92
2. 王春展(民86)。專家與生手間問題解決能力的差異,及其在教學上的啟示。教育研究資訊,5(2),80-92
3. 柯永河(民83a)。同一量尺,類似受試,不同作答方式會產生什麼測驗結果?測驗年刊,41,55-72。
4. 柯永河(民83a)。同一量尺,類似受試,不同作答方式會產生什麼測驗結果?測驗年刊,41,55-72。
5. 柯永河 (民85)。談習慣測量的需要與方法。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,43,17-32。
6. 柯永河 (民85)。談習慣測量的需要與方法。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,43,17-32。
7. 柯永河(民93b)。我與習慣心理學—回首獨行路,瞻望滿星天。臨床心理學刊,1(1),1-12
8. 柯永河(民93b)。我與習慣心理學—回首獨行路,瞻望滿星天。臨床心理學刊,1(1),1-12
9. 許麗齡(民91)。反省思維與批判性思考—以臨床日誌為例。護理雜誌,49(6),67-72
10. 許麗齡(民91)。反省思維與批判性思考—以臨床日誌為例。護理雜誌,49(6),67-72
11. 許文耀、張素凰(民97)。臨床心理師考試教考用之探討。國家菁英季刊,4(4),51-82
12. 許文耀、張素凰(民97)。臨床心理師考試教考用之探討。國家菁英季刊,4(4),51-82
13. 黃幸美(民84)。類比推理思考及其在教學上之應用。教育研究資訊,3(3),128-142
14. 黃幸美(民84)。類比推理思考及其在教學上之應用。教育研究資訊,3(3),128-142
15. 黃淑燕(民92)。學校行政人員反省思考與實踐之探討。學校行政雙月刊,24,35-42
 
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