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研究生:許雪玲
研究生(外文):Hsueh-Ling Hsu
論文名稱:成年女性之挫折調適歷程
論文名稱(外文):The Psychological Recovery Process from Frustration of Adult Females
指導教授:高旭繁博士
指導教授(外文):Dr.Shu-Fang Kao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:玄奘大學
系所名稱:應用心理學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:調適歷程因應策略復原力自我價值
外文關鍵詞:adaptation processcoping strategiesresilience factorsself-worth
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本論文旨在探討成年女性面對挫折困境時之調適歷程。研究方法採用質性研究的深度訪談方式收集資料,並以半結構的訪談大綱為輔助工具,深入訪談成年女性從挫折調適到復原的歷程。研究發現:從受訪者處理挫折的調適復原歷程中看出,不論挫折事件是婚姻的變化還是喪失親友,成年女性的體驗或調適方式雖然都不盡相同,但都依循著一個相同的脈絡,即從「遭遇面對」到「接受與省思」轉為「因應處理」,最後則「調適復原」;致使參與者能成功地從挫折中復原的推動力是對負面事件賦予正向的意義。根據四位參與者的調適過程亦發現,自我省思與理性分析通常是改變的起點。此外,參與者共有的建設性因應策略則有:(1)自我省思與分析調整,(2)親友支持與協助,(3)徵詢親友的意見與建議,(4)避免獨處並參與親友生活,(5)為情緒找出口,(6)轉移生活焦點,(7)自我調適,(8)賦予負面事件其正向的意義。
本研究的結論是:成年女性挫折復原力的保護因子來自於內在自我價值的提升與外在支持系統的經營,雖說前者是復原的起點,但若無後者的配合,仍無法有效復原,兩者相輔相成。建議面對挫折中的成年女性應從強化自我及尋求支持兩方面著手,此結論亦提供後續研究及相關實務工作者參考之。
This study aims to explore the psychological recovery process from frustration of adult females. The research method is qualitative analysis, relying on in-depth interviews to collect data which are supported by semi-structured interview outlines. The thesis analyzes the statements of the four interviewed adult females, the frustration and stress they encountered, their ability and resources to help the recovery of their frustration, and their coping strategies. How they face the various difficulties in life and how they adapt to and recover from a plight are discussed.
The research found female interviewees have different ways to deal, such as loss of family and marital problems. However, they all follow a similar pattern: from “encounter” to “acceptance and reflection,” then to “response and treatment,” and finally to “adjustment and recovery.” The driving force behind is to give positive significance to negative incidents.
The adaptation process of each of the four female interviewees shows that self-reflection and self-analysis is usually the first step to adjustment. Past life experience could enhance psychological strength. The common coping strategies among the four females include: (1) Self-reflection and adjustment; (2) Support from family members and friends; (3) Advices from family members and friends; (4) Living with family or friends and avoidance of being alone; (5) Emotional outlets; (6) Shifting life focus ; (7) Self-Adaptation; (8) To endow negative incidents with positive meanings.
It appears that the psychological resilience factors of adult females come from their inner self-worth and the external support system, and the two have to work together. This study concludes: that the recovery strength requires well-developed self-construction and self-accomplishment to interact with the external mechanism; thus, for females who are facing frustrating situations are encouraged to work on the internal and external aspects. The conclusion should provide references for future scholars and social workers.
目錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機 …………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的 …………………………………………4
第二章 文獻回顧
第一節 挫折復原歷程的理論與相關研究 ………………5
一、挫折的意涵 …………………………………5
二、挫折復原力的意涵與研究 …………………7
三、挫折復原力因子 ……………………………11
四、挫折因應策略 ………………………………14
第二節 正向心理學的理論與相關研究 …………………18
一、正向心理學之意涵 …………………………19
二、正向心理學的相關研究 ……………………21
三、正向心理學的啟示 …………………………23
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究取向與方法 …………………………………25
一、樣本來源及特性 ……………………………26
二、資料蒐集與分析 ……………………………27
三、研究的信度、效度考量 ……………………29
第二節 研究對象 …………………………………………30
第三節 研究架構程序 ……………………………………31
第四節 資料分析 …………………………………………33
第五節 研究倫理 …………………………………………35
第四章 研究結果
第一節 研究參與者背景說明 ……………………………37
一、研究參與者A…………………………………37
二、研究參與者B…………………………………38
三、研究參與者C…………………………………38
四、研究參與者D…………………………………39
第二節 挫折的詮釋 ………………………………………41
一、研究參與者A…………………………………41
二、研究參與者B…………………………………42
三、研究參與者C…………………………………44
四、研究參與者D…………………………………45
第三節 挫折因應方式 ……………………………………48
一、研究參與者A…………………………………48
二、研究參與者B…………………………………49
三、研究參與者C…………………………………51
四、研究參與者D…………………………………53
第四節 負向策略之因應 …………………………………56
一、研究參與者C…………………………………56
二、研究參與者D…………………………………58
第五節 挫折復原力因子及心理素質 ……………………62
一、研究參與者A…………………………………62
二、研究參與者B…………………………………66
三、研究參與者C…………………………………70
四、研究參與者D…………………………………74
第五章 結論與討論
第一節 研究發現 …………………………………………78
一、調適復原歷程的路徑 ………………………78
二、調適復原與因應 ……………………………79
三、挫折的正面意義 ……………………………92
第二節 研究討論 …………………………………………100
一、因應策略的比較 ……………………………100
二、影響復原力的因素 …………………………102
第三節 檢討與限制 ………………………………………103
一、研究者的檢討 ………………………………104
二、研究限制 ……………………………………104
第四節 研究建議 …………………………………………104
一、挫折調適的建議 ……………………………105
二、對未來研究的建議 …………………………106
第五節 研究者的省思 ……………………………………106

參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………110
附錄一 訪談大綱 ……………………………………………………121
附錄二 訪談同意書 …………………………………………………122
附錄三 效度檢核函(一) …………………………………………123
附錄四 效度檢核函(二) …………………………………………124

圖目錄
圖3-3-1 本研究之研究流程圖………………………………………32
圖4-4-1 研究參與者C前次挫折的心理歷程圖 ……………………58
圖4-4-2 研究參與者D前次挫折的心理歷程圖 ……………………61
圖4-5-1 研究參與者A其挫折調適復原之因應策略歷程圖 ………65
圖4-5-2 研究參與者B其挫折調適復原之因應策略歷程圖 ………69
圖4-5-3 研究參與者C其挫折調適復原之因應策略歷程圖 ………73
圖4-5-4 研究參與者D其挫折調適復原之因應策略歷程圖 ………77
圖5-1-1 研究參與者正向復原歷程關聯圖…………………………79


表目錄
表3-2-1 研究參與者的基本資料表…………………………………31
表3-4-1 研究參與受訪者部份談話紀錄範例表……………………34
表4-1-1 研究參與者遭遇挫折事件之性格前後變化分析表………40
表4-2-1 研究參與者生命歷程中最大的挫折詮釋分析表…………47
表4-3-1 研究參與者C、D前後次的挫折經歷正負向因應表………55
表5-2-1 因應策略比較表 …………………………………………101
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