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研究生:但昭璧
研究生(外文):Jerry Dann
論文名稱:機場排放清冊建構模式之研析--以桃園國際機場為例
論文名稱(外文):The Analysis of Airport Emission Inventory Development Model – A Case Study of Taoyuan International Airport
指導教授:尹相隆尹相隆引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:開南大學
系所名稱:空運管理學系
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:航空學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:機場排放清冊排放因子飛機排放飛機服務設備排放機場固定設施排放地面運輸排放飛機到離場循環
外文關鍵詞:airport emissions inventoryemission factoraircraft emissionsaircraft handling emissionsinfrastructure or stationary related sourcesvehicle traffic sourcesLanding and Take-off Cycle
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摘 要

迅速便捷為航空運輸之特色,於全球經濟發展之中航空運輸扮演了重要的角色,而航空部門與氣候變遷之課題亦愈趨受到重視,其中機場的溫室氣體排放與空氣品質尤其受到各國政府環保機構的關切。

有鑑於此,本研究先行論述機場排放之估算。依ICAO Doc. 9889,將機場排放以固定源(航廈、機場行政區)、移動源(空側:飛機、地面支援設備、車輛;機場區域內陸側:各式車輛)之分類,建構排放模式。

於移動源部分,飛機主發動機排放採用ICAO進階法,依飛機機型、發動機型式及到離場循環(LTO)計算;APU排放依飛機航程區分運轉模式,統計其LTO次數計算排放量;空側地面支援設備參照IPCC Tier1方法,以空側加油站各種燃油年度消耗量作簡單卻準確的估算;陸側各式車輛排放則透過機場旅客人數、機場工作人員人數、公路客運公司運能及機場貨運量等資料進行推估。至於固定源部份,則採用一般能源調查統計耗用電量計算排放量

本研究以既定之排放模式建立桃園國際機場2009年排放清冊,除全面推估CO2排放量外,固定源與陸側移動源另均加計空氣品質關切之HC、CO、NOx排放量。與其他文獻比較,所推估之飛機CO2排放較低,係因桃園國際機場實際LTO時間模式較ICAO標準為少。

由桃園國際機場2009年排放清冊可知,飛機排放以53.72%為最大宗,其次為固定源的34.91%,空、陸側的地面移動源則均少於8%。此一結果,可作為機場擬訂減排策略時之參考。
因此,本研究就各排放源提出減少飛機滑行時間、以空橋固定電源取代APU、妥適分配時間帶、固定源智慧管理、提高大眾運輸系統效能及改善跑道鋪面等建議,期能達成飛機廢氣排放與機場與空氣污染減量的目標。
Abstract

The features of air transportation are rapidness and convenience. Air transportation plays an important part in the global economic development. Recently, issues of aviation and climate change have attracted more and more attention. Among these issues, the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and the air quality are the most concerned subjects of global governments.

The focus of the essay is to analysis the calculation model of airport emissions and conducts the case study of the Taoyuan Airport emissions accordingly. Based on the “Airport Air Quality Guidance Manual” (ICAO document 9889), the sources of airport emissions are categorized into fixed sources (including terminals and administrative areas) and mobile sources (including airside sources, i.e. aircrafts, ground support equipments and ground vehicles, and landside sources of the airport area, i.e. all types of vehicles). The emission models of different sources are established respectively. The aircraft emissions are precisely calculated based on the ICAO advanced method according to aircraft types, engine types and LTO cycles of every year. The emissions of Auxiliary Power Units (APU) are accumulated separately based on the numbers of LTO cycles of different operation models which are defined by the flight range of aircrafts. The emissions of ground support equipments are calculated based on the IPCC Tier1 method which estimates the emissions simply and correctly by measuring the annual consumption of every kind of fuel of airside gas stations. The emissions of fixed sources are calculated according to the electricity consumption. The emissions of landside vehicles are estimated by the number of passengers and staff, the transport capacity of transportation companies, and the cargo capacity.
After the emission model is established, it is able to compile the Taoyuan Airport Emissions Inventory 2009 accordingly. The CO2 emissions from all sources are estimated, and the emissions of HC, CO and NOx of the fixed sources and landside mobile sources which influence the air quality seriously, are also calculated. Comparing to the data of other documents, the CO2 emission of aircrafts in the Taoyuan Airport is lower, which results from the times of the actual LTO cycle model are fewer than the ICAO calculation. However, the CO2 emission of aircrafts is still the biggest GHG emission source, which accounts for 53.72% of all emissions. Following the aircraft emission are the emissions from fixed sources, constituting 34.91% of all emissions. The proportions of emissions from airside and landside mobile sources are both lower than 8%.

According to the estimation and calculation in the essay, the goal of reducing air pollution and GHG emissions of aircrafts and airports may be achieved by adopting following measures. The time of aircraft taxiing should be decreased, the APUs should be replaced by fixed electric sources, the time slot of flight should be arranged appropriately, the landside mobile sources should adopt biofuel or be driven by electricity and the efficiency of public transportation and the intelligent management should be improved. Finally, the runway pavement should be enhanced.
第一章 前言

第二章 文獻回顧
第一節 地球溫室效應
第二節 氣候變遷
第三節 溫室氣體
第四節 航空業對於氣候變遷的影響
第五節 機場汙染物的排放

第三章 研究方法
第一節 飛機排放計算模式
第二節 地面支援設備排放
第三節 機場固定設施排放
第四節 地面運輸排放
第五節 機場排放量

第四章 桃園國際機場排放清冊
第一節 機場排放清冊內容
第二節 桃園國際機場排放空間分布
第三節 桃園國際機場排放時間分布
第四節 桃園國際機場各類排放統計
第五節 桃園國際機場2009年排放清冊

第五章 結語

第六章 建議
第一節 國際間有關機場節約能源減少排放之措施
第二節 對於桃園國際機場之建議
一、中文部分
中國石油公司(2009),中國石油公司桃園機場第二加油站營運統計。
中華民國能源之星,「溫室氣體有哪些」,財團法人環境與發展基金會,取自:http://www.energystar.org.tw/Chtml/WARMAIR002.htm。
王琬靈(2010),「國外機場節能減碳簡介」,能源報導,2010.1。
台北飛航情報區飛航指南。
台灣電力公司(2009),「我國CO2電力排放係數」,2009.8.19。
交通部統計處(2009),「自用小客車使用狀況調查摘要分析」,98.10.15。
行政院環境保護署 (2010),「能源之星」,2010.3.11,取自:http://www.epa.gov.tw/ch/aioshow.aspx?busin=12379&path=12419&guid=dc1639a5-d13f-43bc-a139-c05ea0ea7993&lang=zh-tw。
行政院環境保護署a,「溫室氣體資料庫」,行政院環境保護署,取自:http://webgis.sinica.edu.tw/epa/epa.html。
行政院環境保護署b,「空氣污染物排放量推估手冊(TEDS7.0版) 」,行政院環境保護署。
香港國際機場網頁,「香港國際機場能源效益」,取自:http://www.hongkongairport.com/chi/csr/environmental-management/energy.html。
徐光蓉、王塗發(1997),「全球CO2減量風潮中,台灣應如何因應」全球變遷通訊第十六期,1997.12。
桃園國際航空站2009年年鑑。
桃園國際機場2009年冬季班表。
國立台灣大學全球變遷研中心資訊網(2003),「海底巨量甲烷水合物將嚴重威脅未來氣候」,2003.3.20,取自:http://www.gcc.ntu.edu.tw/Chinese/Inforweb/infor_view.asp?epaperid=20030320。
理財周刊(2007),「省油又耐操柴油車搶拚市占率」,理財周刊373期,2007.10.18。
華翼網新聞中心(2010),「中國航空業今年預計將減少二氧化碳排放27.5萬噸」,2010.1.5,取自:http://newsbig5.chinesewings.com/cgi-bin/c.cgi?id=na01058350658。
新華網(2009),「航班空中飛行或地面滑行力爭減少3分鐘」,2009.2.20,取自:http://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/gb.cri.cn/27824/2009/02/20/2625s2434067.htm。
經濟部能源局(2008),「我國燃燒CO2排放統計與分析」。
經濟部能源局(2009a),取自:http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw/news/newsdetail.aspx?no=03&serno=00378
經濟部能源局(2009b),「溫室氣體排放係數管理表(5.0版) 」,2009.11。
翱翔天地第18期(2009),HKIA News,取自:http://www.hongkongairport.com/eng/pdf/media/publication/hkia-news/hkianews_18.pdf。
聯合報(2010),「學者憂暖化糧荒戰禍」,2010.1.19。
盧曉櫻(2009),「交通部民用航空局國際航空器廢氣及排放減量現況調查及我國因應策略之研究」,2009.11。

二、西文部分
ACRP (2009). Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories.
Airport News (2008). Boston Logan Airport annual maintenance program includes runway resurfacing, 8 September 2008, from: http://airportnews.aero/airline/14004/59/Boston-Logan-Airport-annual-maintenance-program-includes-runway-resurfacing.
Burleson (2009). Aviation and Climate Administration Change- Managing the Challenge of Growth, ICAS Aviation and Environment Workshop, 28 September 2009.
Climate protection measures, Munich Airport, from: http://www.munich-airport.de/en/company/umwelt/luft/klima/index.jsp.
Environmental management, EFM, Munich Airport, from: http://www.munich-http://www.munich-airport.de/en/micro/efm/UM/index.jsp.
Fleuti (2008). ACI Airport Emission Inventory, Emanuel Fleuti.
GRID-Arendal, The greenhouse effect, from: http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/climate/page/3058.aspx.
Herdman (2008). Air Cargo Environmental Challenges, TIACA 24th International Air Cargo Forum, 4-6 November, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2008.
Hupe J. (2008). ICAO activities in the field of emissions from aviation, Air Transport Symposium – Abuja, Nigeria, 28 to 30 April 2008.
IATA (2009). Remarks of Giovanni Bisignani at the World Business Summit on Climate Change in Copenhagen, 24 May 2009.
ICAO (2007a). Environmental Report 2007.
ICAO (2007b). Doc. 9889, Airport Air Quality Guidance Manual.
ICAO (2009). Carbon Emissions Calculator Version 2, May 2009.
ICAO Engine Exhaust Emissions Data Bank.
IPCC (1999). Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere.
IPCC (2006). Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
IPCC (2007a). 4th Assessment Report.
IPCC (2007b). Climate Change 2007, Frequently Asked Questions and Selected Technical Summary Boxes.
Kiehl and Trenberth (1997). Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Kiehl, J. T. and Trenberth, K. E..
Kyoto Protocol (1997). UNFCCC.
Schiphol (2008). Schiphol Group Annual Report 2008.
Stern (2006). Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Nicholas Stern, 10 October 2006.
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