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研究生:何介文
研究生(外文):Chieh-Wen Ho
論文名稱:髖關節骨柄最佳化設計與製程模擬
論文名稱(外文):The Hip Stem Design Optimization and Casting Process Simulation
指導教授:李泓原
指導教授(外文):Hung-Yuan Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:模具工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:人工髖關節最佳化骨柄最佳化
外文關鍵詞:Artificial hip jointship StemOptimal design
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由於人工關節、生醫材料及手術的進步,全人工髖關節置換術已被廣泛的運用。近年來人工髖關節置換術的存活率高達九成,但會因為病患的年齡、性別與髖關節疾病等其它因素而影響術後的存活率。目前所使用的人工髖關節絕大部分的設計是依歐美人種的正常形骨髓腔而設計的,明顯的與國人倒香檳型不同。因此本研究主要的目的是依據倒香檳形骨髓腔形狀嘗試設計出一股骨柄,並將其參數最佳化。

本研究採兩部分,第一部分為股骨柄的最佳化設計,以有限元素分析法模擬單腳站立的受力情形觀察應力的分佈及找出最佳化的設計參數,並且模擬不同程度的骨質疏鬆及骨水泥厚薄的不同對應力的分佈與影響。第二部分則以最佳化股骨柄設計產品模擬鈷鉻鉬合金之精密鑄造過程。

分析結果顯示最佳的股骨柄設計為頸幹角140度、球頭偏移量42.7mm球頭直徑30mm,由靈敏度分析可得知對於等效應力而言影響最為大為頸幹角其次球頭大小,再來是球頭偏移量,對最大剪應力而言影響最大的為頸幹角其次球頭偏移量,最小的為球頭直徑。
By the developments of biomaterials and improvements of surgical techniques, total hip surgery has been used more frequently and the survival rate can achieve up to 90%. However, this rate could be influenced via patients' ages, genders or other hip diseases. In Asia, most of the artificial hip joints are designed in accordance to the normal type of bone marrow cavity which can be commonly observed in European, an obvious difference with the Asian inverted champagne type. The main purpose of this study is to design a femoral component based on this inverted champagne shaped bone marrow cavity shape.

This study is divided into two parts, the first part is to find the optimal design of the hip stem. Finite element method is applied to simulate the normal standing posture and to observe the stress distribution in the artificial hip stem and bone cement. Three stem shape parameters are taken as design variables to find the lowest stress generated. The second part is to simulate the Co-Cr-Mo alloy material flow in the investment casting mold and to investigate the gating and riser design.

Analysis results show that the artificial hip stem neck shaft angle has the strongest influence on both the von Mises stress and maximum shear stress compared with femoral head diameter and femoral head offset distance. The lowest stress can be observed when the femoral neck shaft angle is 140 degrees, femoral head diameter is 30 mm and femoral head offset distance is 42.7mm. Molding analysis results show that increasing the pre-heat mold temperature and gating cross-section area can effectively reduce the molding void in the product.
摘要 III
ABSTRACT IV
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
符號表 XIII
一、緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 骨組織 4
1-3 髖關節介紹 6
1-3-1 髖關節的構造解剖 6
1-3-2 股骨的構造解剖 9
1-3-3 髖關節之運動學 13
1-4 全人工髖關節置換術 16
1-4-1 人工髖關節簡介 17
1-4-2 股骨柄重要設計參數 18
1-4-3 股骨柄的幾何參數 18
1-4-4 股骨柄的材料參數 21
1-5 應力遮蔽效應 30
1-6 精密鑄造簡介 30
1-7 文獻回顧 33
1-7-1 骨柄設計之相關文獻 33
1-7-2 骨密度之相關文獻 35
1-7-3 精密鑄造分析之相關文獻 37
1-8 研究動機與目的 38
二、研究相關理論探討 39
2-1 有限元素法 39
2-1-1 彈性力學分析 40
2-1-2 應力定義 44
2-2 鑄造模擬分析 45
2-3 骨骼數學模型 48
三、實驗步驟與方法 53
3-1 股骨柄設計 54
3-2 骨密度 56
3-3 髖關節受力情形 57
3-4 收斂性分析 60
3-5 模擬參數設定 61
3-5-1 骨骼參數 61
3-5-2 骨水泥、股骨柄及股骨球頭的材料參數 61
3-5-3 邊界條件設定 61
3-6 最佳化分析 63
3-7 骨質疏鬆密度設定 63
3-8 骨水泥厚度分佈 63
3-9 鑄造模擬分析設定 65
3-9-1 鑄造方案 65
3-9-2 數值模擬 66
四、結果與討論 70
4-1 網格收斂性分析 70
4-2 最佳化分析結果與討論 71
4-2-1 各參數對等效應力的影響 75
4-2-2 各參數對最大剪應力的影響 87
4-2-3 最佳化分析總結 98
4-3 骨質疏鬆分析 100
4-4 骨水泥比值分析 103
4-5 鑄造模擬分析 105
4-5-1 初始設計鑄造模擬結果與分析 105
4-5-2 改良設計鑄造模擬結果與分析 105
五、結論 111
六、參考文獻 113
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