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研究生:連正瑋
研究生(外文):Cheng Wei lian
論文名稱:使用主動式電感實現應用於藍芽系統2.4GHz CMOS接收器
論文名稱(外文):An Implementation of 2.4GHz CMOS Receiver with Active Inductors for Bluetooth Applications
指導教授:楊鎮澤楊鎮澤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn Tzer Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:明新科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:主動式電感高品值因數低雜訊放大器差動式放大器
外文關鍵詞:Active inductorHigh quality factor,Differential amplifierLow noise amplifier
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本論文使用台積電(TSMC)0.18um 1P6M CMOS製程,實現可使用在2.4GHz低雜訊放大器和藍芽接收機,電路使用主動電感取代螺旋電感。
低雜訊放大器通常使用面積較大的螺旋電感來做負載,佔用較大面積,因此使用主動式電感減少晶片面積,但卻也因此增加了雜訊。為了改善雜訊指數的表現,低雜訊放大器的架構採用差動輸出,大幅降低雜訊過高的情況。低雜訊放大器的增益為9.4dB,S11反射係數小於-12dB,1dB壓縮點則在-16dBm,IIP3則在-5.5dBm,雜訊指數小於0.5dB,消耗功率為10.2mW。
直接降頻式前端接收機的製作通常需要整合三塊電路,分別是低雜訊放大器、混頻器和壓控震盪器。在本篇論文中所製作的藍芽接收機採用直接降頻,並且使用IP(Intellectual Property core)整合壓控震盪器與混頻器,並且加入本論文中的低雜訊放大器製作而成,達成SoC(System on Chip)的目標。藍芽接收機的轉換增益為17dB,靈敏度為-94.4dB,雜訊指數為1.02dB,IIP3為-18.996dBm,1dB壓縮點則為-19dBm,功率消耗為40.2mW,完全符合藍芽規範。

In this thesis, a low noise amplifier (LNA) fabricated with active inductors and integrated with mixer and voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in Bluetooth receiver are presented.
Generally, LNA fabricated with spiral inductors will increase chip area. In this work, a LNA was designed by using active inductors. However, active inductors will cause large noise. A differential output configure are used in the LNA design to reduce noise figure. Measure results shown that the gain of LNA is 9.4dB, S11 is lower than -12dB, 1dB compress point is -16dBm, IIP3 is -5.5dBm, NF is lower than 0.5dB, and power consumed is 10.2mW at 1.8 V power supply.
VCO, LNA, and mixer are formed a direct conversion receiver for Bluetooth applications. In this receiver, post simulation results reveal the sensitivity of -94.4dB, NF of 1.02dB, conversion gain of 17dB, 1dB compress of -19dBm, and IIP3 of -18.996dBm. The power consumed of this receiver is around 40.2mW at 1.8 power supply.

Keywords: Active inductor, High quality factor, Low noise amplifier, Differential amplifier

目 錄
摘要 ..............................................................................i
Abstract .............................................................................................................ii
致謝 ..............................................................................iii
目錄 ..............................................................................iv
圖目錄 ..............................................................................vi
表目錄 ..............................................................................viii
第一章 緒論 ..............................................................................1
1.1 研究動機..........................................................................1
1.2 研究方法.........................................................................2
1.3 章節提要..........................................................................2
第二章 基本參數介紹...................................................................3
2.1 S參數.................................................................................3
2.1.1 S11與S22反射係數....................................................3
2.1.2 S21增益係數................................................................5
2.1.3 S12隔離度係數...........................................................5
2.2 雜訊........................................................................5
2.2.1 雜訊指數................................................................5
2.2.2 多級串接雜訊...........................................................6
2.3 穩定度..............................................................................6
2.4 線性度參數.........................................................................7
2.4.1 轉換增益.....................................................................8
2.4.2 1dB壓縮點.......................................................................8
2.4.3 IIP3互調失真度.............................................................9
2.5 混頻器隔離度...................................................................12
2.6 相位雜訊.............................................................................12
2.7 輸出功率..........................................................................13
2.8 調整範圍..........................................................................13
2.9 靈敏度..........................................................................13
第三章 主動式電感的設計............................................................15
3.1 傳統電感簡介................................................................15
3.2 主動式電感原理介紹......................................................16
3.3 主動式電感設計方法.......................................................17
第四章 低雜訊放大器的設計.........................................................20
4.1 常見射頻放大器形式.......................................................20
4.1.1 疊接放大器.............................................................20
4.1.2 串接多級放大器.....................................................21
4.1.3 共閘極輸入放大器....................................................21
4.2 阻抗匹配.........................................................................22
4.2.1 閘極匹配網路.........................................................22
4.2.2 源極退化技術.........................................................23
4.2.3 變壓器匹配................................................................24
4.2.4 微帶線匹配................................................................24
4.2.5 共閘極組態匹配網路..................................................25
4.3 放大器負載......................................................................25
4.3.1 電阻負載................................................................25
4.3.2 被動電感負載.........................................................26
4.3.3 主動電感負載............................................................26
4.4 差動輸出與單端輸出低雜訊放大器比較.............................26
4.4.1 單端輸出低雜訊放大器(使用平衡非平衡轉換器)..........26
4.4.2 差動輸出低雜訊放大器............................................27
第五章 低雜訊放大器的實作.........................................................28
5.1 設計概念.......................................................................28
5.2 設計流程.........................................................................29
5.3 佈局考量..........................................................................30
5.4 模擬結果..........................................................................32
5.5 量測結果..........................................................................37
5.5.1 量測儀器介紹............................................................37
5.5.2 量測數據 ..................................................................39
5.5.3 結果比較....................................................................44
5.6 於PCB板量測.................................................................45
5.6.1 路徑模擬..................................................................45
5.6.2 RF路徑與LNA共同模擬.......................................49
5.7 問題與討論......................................................................52
第六章 射頻前端電路整合實作......................................................53
6.1 前端接收機重要元件介紹................................................53
6.1.1 低雜訊放大器..........................................................53
6.1.2 混頻器......................................................................53
6.1.3 壓控震盪器..............................................................54
6.2 前端接收機架構介紹................................................................55
6.2.1 礦石接收機..............................................................55
6.2.2 超外差接收機..........................................................56
6.2.3 正交超外差接收機..................................................57
6.2.4 直接降頻接收機......................................................58
6.3 前端接收機整合實作.......................................................59
6.3.1 低雜訊放大器..........................................................60
6.3.2 混頻器......................................................................61
6.3.3 壓控震盪器..............................................................63
6.3.4 前端接收機模擬......................................................64
6.4 問題與討論......................................................................69
第七章 結論...................................................................................70
參考文獻 ..................................................................................71

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