跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.210.85.190) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/11/30 01:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林銀姿
研究生(外文):Lin, Yin Tzu
論文名稱:國民中學基本學力測驗英語科回沖效應研究
論文名稱(外文):A study on the washback effect of the basic competence english test on junior high school students in Northern Taiwan
指導教授:尤雪瑛尤雪瑛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu, Hsueh Ying
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:回沖效應國民中學基本學力測驗英語科學生學習語言測驗臺灣
外文關鍵詞:washbackBasic Competence English Teststudent learninglanguage testingTaiwan
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:339
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
國民中學基本學力測驗(簡稱「基測」)英語科屬高代價之語言測驗,測驗結果攸關每年三十萬左右國中畢業生的升學依據,影響層面甚廣,測驗對教學的影響即語言測驗文獻中所探討之回沖效應。

本研究旨在探討基測英語科對台灣北部地區九年級學生英語學習的回沖效應,以問卷調查台灣北部地區(基隆市、台北市、台北縣、桃園縣、新竹市、新竹縣)九年級學生,從以下四個面向探討基測英語科所造成的回沖效應:(1)學生對基測英語科試題的了解及看法;(2)學生的學習目的;(3)學生的學習方式;(4)課堂活動。本研究以四個行政層級(直轄市、市、鎮、鄉)作為抽樣依據,共計發出1,490份問卷。

研究主要結果如下:

一、大多數學生了解基測英語科之題型及測驗目的。僅有半數學生認為試題簡單,進一步分析顯示,比較了解題型及目的的學生認為試題簡單。

二、學生學習目的與《國民中小學九年一貫課程綱要》英語課程目標一致。不以基測作為主要英語學習目標的學生英語成績較好。

三、學生最常從事的學習活動是聽英語歌曲、看英語影片或節目,也會學習千字表之外的字詞。大部分的學生沒有藉由參考書、參加校內課後輔導或校外補習來準備基測英語科。

四、最常見的課堂活動是老師帶唸課文或單字、文法練習,及寫測驗卷或聽老師檢討內容。相較之下,口說聽力的教學活動較少。

結果顯示基測英語科對學生的學習影響不大,但對老師的課堂教學產生負面回沖效應,進而影響學生學習。綜合研究結果,本研究建議教師應增加課堂教學活動的多樣性,減少測驗相關教材及練習,以培養學生學習英語的興趣與方法。
The effect of testing on teaching and learning is generally known as washback in the field of language testing and assessment. Despite a growing attention to the concept of washback, most washback studies focus on teachers, not on learners as test takers, who are the most important stakeholders in testing.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the washback effect of the Basic Competence English Test (BCET), a high-stakes language test, on 9th-graders in northern Taiwan. The method of questionnaire survey was used to collect students’ perspectives on the following four areas: (a) perceptions of the BCET, (b) learning motivation, (c) learning activities, and (d) class activities. A convenient sample of a proportionate size was selected based on four administrative levels (i.e., national, municipal, town, and village levels) from Keelung City, Taipei City, Taipei County, Taoyuan County, Hsinchu City, and Hsinchu County. Altogether 1,490 ninth-graders from 42 classes at 22 schools were selected for the survey across northern Taiwan.

The major findings of the study are as follows:

1. Most 9th-graders in northern Taiwan were aware of the BCET test format and the BCET test purpose. Nearly half of them found the BCET not to be easy. The more the students understood the BCET format, the more likely they thought that the BCET was easy. Similarly, the more the students understood the BCET purpose, the more likely they regarded the BCET as an easy test.

2. Three top motivations for the students to learn English coincide with the overall objectives of English language education in Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Students’ English achievement gets better if they do not regard the BCET as the primary goal of language learning.

3. Students’ most common learning activities include listening to English songs, watching movies/programs in English, and learning words and phrases beyond the word list of 1,000 basic English vocabularies. The BCET does not drive students to undertake the following practices: using practice books for examinations, attending cram schools, and attending self-study classes for the test at school.

4. It was common for the 9th-graders to do practice tests or mock examinations in class, and listen to their teachers explaining the test items. Instruction relating to formal aspects of English also occurred frequently in English language courses, while few aural/oral practice activities were undertaken in classroom teaching.

Based on the findings of the BCET washback effects on students and teachers, this study suggests that English teachers should attempt to employ various types of classroom activities, as proposed in Grade 1-9 Curriculum, rather than relying on examination-oriented materials and practices, so as to promote learning interests and develop effective methods of learning.
Acknowledgments iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables and Figures viii
Chinese abstract x
English abstract xii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
Context of the Study 7
English Language Education in Taiwan 7
The Basic Competence Test (BCT) for Junior High School Students 9
The Basic Competence English Test (BCET) for Junior High School Students 10
Purpose of the Study 11
Significance of the Study 12
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13
The Nature of Washback: Positive vs. Negative 13
Negative Washback 13
Positive Washback 16
The Nature of Washback and Context 19
The Washback Mechanism 20
Alderson and Wall’s Washback Hypothesis 20
The Hughes Trichotomy Framework 22
Bailey’s Model of Washback 23
Studies on BCET and BCT Washback 25
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 29
Selection of the Participants 29
Instruments 31
Content of the Questionnaire 32
Reliability and Validity 34
Data Collection Procedures 36
Data Analysis 38
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 40
Students’ Characteristics and Their Learning Contexts 41
Students’ Perceptions of the BCET 44
Perceptions of the BCET Test Difficulty and Test Format 45
Perceptions of the BCET Test Purpose 46
Perceptions of the BCET Test Difficulty in Relation to Understanding the BCET Test Format and Test Purpose 47
Summary on Students’ Perceptions of the BCET 49
Students’ Motivation to Learn English 51
Perceptions of the Importance of Learning English 53
Motivation in Relation to Grade 1-9 Curriculum 55
Motivations that Students Find Less Strong 57
Summary on Student Motivation 61
Students’ Learning Activities 62
Learning Activities that are Less Directly Related to the BCET 63
Learning Activities that are More Directly Related to the BCET 66
Summary on Students’ Learning Activities 71
Students’ Perceptions of Class Activities 72
Common Classroom Activities in 9th-Grade English Language Courses 74
Classroom Activities Used Occasionally in 9th-Grade English Language Courses 76
Classroom Activities Rarely Used in 9th-Grade English Language Courses 79
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 83
Summary of the Findings 83
Implications of the Study 87
Limitations of the Study 89
Suggestions for Future Research 90
REFERENCES 91
APPENDICES 98
A. List of Selected Schools and Number of Classes 98
B. Questionnaire 101

Alderson, J. C., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (1996). TOEFL preparation courses: A study of washback. Language Testing, 13, 280-297.
Alderson, J. C., & Wall, D. (1993). Does washback exist? Applied Linguistics, 14, 115-129.
Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bailey, K. M. (1996). Working for washback: A review of the washback concept in language testing. Language Testing, 13, 257-279.
Brown, J. D. (2005). Testing in language programs: A comprehensive guide to English language assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Chang, W. (張武昌). (2003). English language education in Taiwanese junior high school: Problems and solutions [我國的國中英語教育:問題與對策]. Newsletter for Teaching the Humanities and Social Science《人文及社會學科教學通訊》, 14(2), 113-130.
Chang, W. (張武昌). (2006). English language education in Taiwan: A comprehensive survey [台灣的英語教育:現況與省思]. Bimonthly Journal of Educational Resources and Research《教育資料與研究》, 69, 129-144.
Chen, L. (2002). Taiwanese junior high school English teachers’ perceptions of the washback effect of the Basic Competence Test in English. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus.
Cheng, L. (2005). Changing language teaching through language testing: A washback study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cheng, L. (2007). What does washback look like? Selected Papers from the Sixteenth International Symposium and Book Fair on English Teaching (pp. 1-6). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.
Cheng, L. (2008). Washback, impact and consequences. In E. Shohamy, & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language in education: Vol. 7. Language testing and assessment (2nd ed., pp. 349-364). New York : Springer-Verlag.
Cheng, L., & Curtis, A. (2004). Washback or backwash: A review of the impact of testing on teaching and learning. In L. Cheng & Y. Watanabe (with A. Curtis) (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (pp. 3-17). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
The Committee of the Basic Competence Test for Junior High School Students. (2007a). 2008 BCT Q&A [九十七年國民中學學生基本學力測驗Q&A]. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from http://www.bctest.ntnu.edu. tw/documents/97QA.pdf
The Committee of the Basic Competence Test for Junior High School Students. (2007b). 2007 BCT Annual Report [九十六年國民中學學生基本學力測驗專輯]. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from http://www.bctest.ntnu. edu.tw/96annuals/index.html
Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Eighty percent of junior high students going to cram schools, and big money for the cram industry [國中8成補習 補教千億商機] (2007, November 12). China Times《中國時報》, p. T1.
Ferman, I. (2004). The washback of an EFL national oral matriculation test to teaching and learning. In L. Cheng & Y. Watanabe (with A. Curtis) (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (pp. 191-210). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Haladyna, T. M., Nolen, S. B., & Hass, N. S. (1991). Raising standardized achievement test scores and the origins of test score pollution. Educational Research, 20(5), 2-7.
Hamp-Lyons, L. (1997). Washback, impact, and validity: Ethical concerns. Language Testing, 14, 295-303.
Hamp-Lyons, L. (2000). Social, professional and individual responsibility in language testing. System, 28, 579-591.
Huang, S.-C. (2004). Washback effects of the Basic Competence English Test on EFL teaching in junior high school in Taiwan. Unpublished master thesis, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan.
Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for language teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lin, S.-H. (林世華) (2001). The development plan of the Basic Competence Test for Junior High School Students [跨世紀的測驗發展計畫~國民中學學生基本學力測驗發展計畫]. BCT Newsletter《飛揚通訊》, 1, 14-16. Retrieved April 6, 2007, from http://www.bctest.ntnu. edu.tw/betweenus1-2.htm/
Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Madaus, G. F. (1988). The influence of testing on the curriculum. In L. N. Tanner (Ed.), Critical issues in curriculum: Eighty-seventh yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I (pp. 83-121). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Messick, S. (1996). Validity and washback in language testing. Language Testing, 13, 241-256.
Ministry of Education (MOE). (2003a). General guidelines of grade 1-9 curriculum of elementary and junior high school education [國民中小學九年一貫課程綱要]. Taipei, Taiwan: Author.
MOE. (2003b). Basic English 1,000-word list for elementary and junior high education [國民中小學最基本一千字詞]. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from http://teach.eje.edu.tw/9CC/ declare/content.php?ID=136
MOE. (2008). Statistics for junior high schools in school year 2007-2008 [九十六學年度國民中學校別資料]. Retrieved March 11, 2008, from http://www.edu. tw/EDU_WEB/EDU_MGT/STATISTICS/EDU7220001/data/96/basek/xls
MOE. (2009). Statistics for junior high schools in school year 2008-2009 [九十七學年度國民中學校別資料]. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from http://www.edu.tw/ statistics/content.aspx?site_content_sn=%2018421
Qi, L. (2005). Stakeholders’ conflicting aims undermine the washback function of a high-stakes test. Language Testing, 22, 142-173.
Qi, L. (2007). Is testing an efficient agent for pedagogical change? Examining the intended washback of the writing task in a high-stakes English test in China. Assessment in Education, 14, 51-74.
Shohamy, E. (1992). Beyond proficiency testing: A diagnostic feedback testing model of assessing foreign language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 76, 513-521.
Shohamy, E. (2001). The power of tests: A critical perspective on the uses of language tests. Harlow, UK: Longman/Pearson.
Shohamy, E., Donitsa-Schmidt, S., & Ferman, I. (1996). Test impact revisited: Washback effect over time. Language Testing, 13, 298-317.
Spolsky, B. (1995). The examination-classroom backwash cycle: Some historical cases. In D. Nunan, R. Berry & V. Berry (Eds.), Bringing about change in language education (pp. 55-66). Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.
Swain, M. (1985). Large-scale communicative language testing: A case study. In Y. P. Lee, A. C. Y. Y. Fok, R. Lord & G. Low (Eds.), New directions in language testing (pp. 35-46). Oxford: Pergamon.
Wall, D. (1997). Impact and washback in language testing. In C. Clapham, & D. Corson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language in education: Vol. 7. Language testing and assessment (pp. 291-302). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Wall, D. (2000). The impact of high-stakes testing on teaching and learning: Can this be predicted or controlled? System, 28, 499-509.
Wall, D., & Alderson, J. C. (1993). Examining washback: The Sri Lankan impact study. Language Testing, 10, 41-69.
Watanabe, Y. (1996). Does grammar translation come from the entrance examination? Preliminary findings from classroom-based research. Language Testing, 13, 318-333.
Watanabe, Y. (2004). Teacher factors mediating washback. In L. Cheng & Y. Watanabe (with A. Curtis) (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (pp. 129-146). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wu, H.-F., & Chang, J.-R. (吳信鳳、張鑑如) (2005). A national survey of Taiwanese elementary and junior high school students on initial age of English instruction and later English and Chinese achievement [提早於幼兒階段學習英語與後續英語、國語成就與能力之相關研究] (Research project commissioned by the MOE). Taipei, Taiwan: MOE.
Yu, M.-N., Lai, T.-L., & Liu, Y.-J. (余民寧、賴姿伶、劉育如) (2004). Students’ perspectives on the effectiveness of the Basic Competency Test for Junior High School Students [國中基本學力測驗實施成效之初步調查:學生的觀點]. Journal of Education & Psychology《教育與心理研究》, 27, 457-481.
Yu, M.-N., Lai, T.-L., & Liu, Y.-J. (余民寧、賴姿伶、劉育如) (2005). Schools’ perspectives on the effectiveness of the Basic Competency Test for Junior High School Students [國中基本學力測驗實施成效之初步調查――學校的觀點]. Journal of Education & Psychology《教育與心理研究》, 28, 193-217.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top