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研究生:劉文勇
研究生(外文):Wen-Yung Liu
論文名稱:臺灣鋏蠓(雙翅目:蠓科)之飼育技術、吸血習性及其誘集器開發
論文名稱(外文):Breeding Techniques, Bloodsucking Habit and Trap Development of Forcipomyia taiwana (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
指導教授:李學進李學進引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shae-Jinn Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:小黑蚊臺灣鋏蠓藻類底質氣象因子相對濕度溫度紫外光八烯醇二氧化碳
外文關鍵詞:biting midgeForcipomyia taiwanaalgaesubstratemeteorological factorrelative humiditytemperatureultraviolet lightoctenolcarbon dioxide
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本論文對於臺灣鋏蠓 (Forcipomyia taiwana (Shiraki)) 之研究,分為飼育技術、吸血習性及誘集器開發 (trap development) 三部分。
在飼育技術方面:以瓊脂為飼育底質 (substrate) 之臺灣鋏蠓幼蟲發育生長所需時間僅為9.4日,幼蟲發育至成蟲存活率達93%,蛹之存活率亦高達97%。而在產卵偏好性試驗結果亦顯示,雌成蟲於瓊脂底質上之產卵數較多。利用柵藻 (Scenedesmus sp.)、小球藻 (Chlorella sp.) 、魚腥藻 (Anabaena sp.) 、側生藻 (Fischerella sp.) 及顫藻 (Oscillatoria sp.)五種不同藻類飼育臺灣鋏蠓幼蟲,顯示供試五種藻類皆能使幼蟲及蛹完成發育生長,若同時考量幼蟲及蛹發育生長所需時間及存活率時,則柵藻為供試藻類中之最佳者。於15∼35℃之供試溫度條件下,若以蟲期較短及存活率較高為考量之依據,則發現於30℃之溫度條件下,最適合臺灣鋏蠓之存活及繁殖。於臺灣鋏蠓雌成蟲對不同幼蟲食物量之產卵偏好試驗中發現, 90%以上之雌成蟲選擇有幼蟲食物 (藻類) 之處產卵,且於幼蟲食物量較多之處產較多卵。
吸血習性方面:臺灣鋏蠓吸血活動與氣象因子 (相對濕度、溫度、光照度、風速及紫外光) 之關係中,由結果顯示在竹林、工寮及騎樓有遮蔽物之環境下,相對濕度是影響吸血活動之主要因子;另外在竹林內之紫外光及工寮之溫度亦為影響吸血活動之重要因子。於臺灣鋏蠓趨光行為之偏好光譜試驗中發現,早晨時段雌成蟲對光的刺激較不敏感,在中午及下午時段則較為敏感;雄成蟲則不會因不同時段而產生對光刺激敏感之差異性。雌成蟲之最敏感波長為330∼340 nm,而雄成蟲則為370 nm,顯示雌、雄蟲皆較偏好紫外光。
誘集器開發方面:於不同光譜之光源試驗中,發光二極體 (LEDs)誘集效果較日光燈為優,其中以8顆405 nm LEDs之誘集效果最好。以化學物質進行誘集臺灣鋏蠓試驗,結果顯示八烯醇、乳酸及丙酮之較佳釋放速率依次為0.7 mg/h、0.2 mg/h、4.8 mg/h,誘集蟲數以八烯醇較多。二氧化碳則以250 ml/min釋放速率對臺灣鋏蠓之誘集效果較好。本研究之誘集器開發於二氧化碳、LEDs與八烯醇之不同組合處理中,以八烯醇 + 二氧化碳 + LEDs三者組合之誘集器對臺灣鋏蠓之誘集效果最佳。
This research focused on the biting midge, Forcipomyia taiwana (Shiraki). It was divided into three parts which included breeding techniques, bloodsucking habit and the trap development.
Breeding techniques: On the agar-based substrate larvae only spent 9.4 days to develop into pupae. And the survival rate for larvae-to-adults and pupae was high to 93%, and 97%, respectively. Experiments on the ovipositional preferences of F. taiwana showed that female adults deposited the largest number of eggs on the agar-based substrate. It was found that F. taiwana bred on any one of these five different algae could all complete the larval and pupal development. Based on the developmental time and the survival rate, Scenedesmus sp. was the best one among all kinds of the tested algae for this biting midge. Under the tested temperatures from 15℃ to 35℃, it was found that the most suitable environment for F. taiwana to survive and reproduce was at 30℃. As the results of different food quantity and choice of oviposition sites for female adults, it was found that above 90% of female adults preferred to lay in the Petri dishes with larval food (algae) and the more food (0.01–0.16g) we put, the more eggs female adults laid.
Bloodsucking habit: This study investigated the relationship between the bloodsucking activity of the midges and meteorological factors. Relative humidity was the major factor to influence the bloodsucking activity at the places with shelters, such as in the bamboo field, at the hut made of bamboo and at the site under the archway outside the bamboo field. The ultraviolet light and the air temperature had a positive correlation with the bloodsucking activity in the bamboo field and at the hut in the bamboo field, respectively. In terms of action spectrum, both males and females were more sensitive to ultraviolet light than to visible light, especially the spectral region between 330 nm and 340 nm for females and 370 nm for males, indicating that male and female adults preferred the ultraviolet light with different spectra individually.
Trap development: The results showed that the LEDs were better than the fluorescent light for attracting biting midges. In this test the more attractive release rate of 1-octen-3-ol, lactic acid and acetone to this pest was found to be 0.7 mg/h, 0.2 mg/h, and 4.8 mg/h, respectively. Octenol was the most attractive to F. taiwana followed by lactic acid and acetone. However, the carbon dioxide with 250 ml/min for four release rates was the most attractive to this biting midge. The effectiveness of the trap with the combination of CO2 (release rates of 250 ml/min) + octenol (0.7 mg/h ) + blue light ( λmax = 405 nm) was the best among four combinations for this pest.
中文摘要……………………………………………….……………i
英文摘要…………………………………………………….……iii
前言………………………………………………………….………1
前人研究……………………………………………………………11
一、臺灣鋏蠓之分類地位、形態、分布及其生態習性…………11
二、臺灣鋏蠓之飼育底質、幼蟲食性及雌蟲產卵偏好…………14
三、溫度、光週期、食物量及幼蟲密度對幼蟲發育生長之影響16
四、臺灣鋏蠓族群密度與氣象因子之關係………………………18
五、成蟲誘集器之開發……………………………………………18
材料與方法...…………………………………………………….21
一、臺灣鋏蠓飼育技術之探討……………………………………21
二、溫度、光週期、食物量及幼蟲密度對臺灣鋏蠓發育生長之
影響…………………………………………………………………24
三、臺灣鋏蠓吸血活動與氣象因子之關係………………………27
四、臺灣鋏蠓趨光行為之偏好光譜試驗…………………………29
五、改良式誘集器之誘集效果……………………………………31
結果…………………………………………………………………36
一、臺灣鋏蠓飼育技術之探討……………………………………36
二、溫度、光週期、食物量及幼蟲密度對臺灣鋏蠓發育生長之
影響……………………………………………………………40
三、臺灣鋏蠓吸血活動與氣象因子之關係………………………49
四、臺灣鋏蠓趨光行為之偏好光譜………………………………52
五、改良式誘集器之誘集效果……………………………………55
討論…………………………………………………………………62
一、臺灣鋏蠓飼育技術之探討……………………………………62
二、溫度、光週期、食物量及幼蟲密度對臺灣鋏蠓發育生長之
影響…………………………………………………………………67
三、臺灣鋏蠓吸血活動與氣象因子之關係………………………75
四、臺灣鋏蠓趨光行為之偏好光譜………………………………77
五、改良式誘集器之誘集效果……………………………………80
結論…………………………………………………………………89
表………………………………………......................90
圖………………………………………………………………….104
引用文…………………………………………………………….139
附錄………………………………………………… ……………152
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