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研究生:詹凱惠
研究生(外文):Chan, Kai-Hui
論文名稱:NDP Kinase A參與c-myc 轉錄調控
論文名稱(外文):NDP kinase A is involved in c-myc transcriptional regulation
指導教授:張玲張玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Christina Ling
口試委員:陳玉玲蔣輯武
口試委員(外文):Yuh-Ling ChenChi-Wu Chiang
口試日期:2010-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:口腔醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:牙醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:c-myc核苷二磷酸激酶A (NDPK-A)核苷二磷酸激酶B (NDPK-B)轉錄
外文關鍵詞:c-mycNDPK-ANDPK-Btranscription
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Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) 是一類廣泛存在的酵素,它通過乒乓機制將nucleoside diphosphates磷酸化為nucleoside triphosphates。該基因家族已知有8個成員,其中NDPK-A/NM23-H1和NDPK-B/NM23-H2研究較多。目前研究指出,雖然NDPK-A和NDPK-B的氨基酸序列同源性高達88%,NDPK-A與癌細胞轉移關係更密切。NDPK-B被證實為human c-myc transcription factor PuF,可結合至c-myc promoter上nuclease-hypersensitive III1 片段。c-myc 原致癌基因在正常細胞生理扮演關鍵性調控角色,其與細胞生長,繁殖,分化,凋亡有關。在大多數的腫瘤,常可發現c-myc表達失調。本實驗室先前發現NDPK-A也可結合至c-myc promoter in vitro並調節其活性in vivo。經由 EMSA 和 UV-crosslinking實驗分析,NDPK-A相較NDPK-B對c-myc的結合能力明顯較弱。於是我更進一步探討NDPK-A及NDPK-B如何分別及共同調控c-myc轉錄。藉由CAT assay分析,我發現NDPK-A對於c-myc調控不需要phosphotransferase活性。除了NDPK-AS120G/N82S,NDPKAWT和NDPKAS120G外生性的表現增加能抑制c-myc轉錄。相同地,NDPK-B也能抑制c-myc的轉錄。NDPK-A和NDPK-B的外生性表現同時增量則導致更強烈c-myc轉錄之抑制現象。相反地,利用shRNA降低內生性的NDPK-A或NDPK-B的表現則活化c-myc轉錄。在過氧壓力下,NDPK-A增進了細胞之存活,降低內生性的NDPK-A或NDPK-B的表現則增加細胞死亡。共同降低內生性NDPK-A與NDPK-B的表現使細胞存活率更低。雖然NDPK-A與NDPK-B對於細胞生長都不具影響,但兩者對於細胞的Wound healing 有相反的能力,本研究結果將癌症轉移所見到的NDPKs異常表現與c-myc 失調連結在一起。
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is an ubiquitous enzyme, which catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate from a nucleoside triphosphate to a nucleoside diphosphate through a ping-pong mechanism. At present, eight members of the human NDPK family have been identified. The most widely studied members are NDPK-A and NDPK-B which are encoded by NM23-H1 and NM23-H2 genes. Accumulating evidence indicates that NDPK-A, but not NDPK-B, is strongly correlated with tumor metastasis even though the two proteins share 88% identical amino acid residues. NDPK-B was identified as PuF, which is a transcriptional regulator of c-myc that binds to the nuclease-hypersensitive element III1 (NHE) III1 in the c-myc promoter. Our laboratory previously found that NDPK-A also specifically binds c-myc NHEIII1 in vitro and regulates the c-myc promoter activity in vivo. Compared to NDPK-B, however, NDPK-A displayed a significantly lower binding affinity toward c-myc DNA based on EMSA and UV-crosslinking. In my study, I have examined the individual and collaborative effects of NDPK-A and NDPK-B on c-myc transcriptional regulation in NB69 neuroblastoma cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells. Using the CAT assay, I found that the phosphotransferase activity or intra-molecular disulfide bond of NDPK-A was not essential for its regulation of c-myc transcription. Ectopic expression of wide-type NDPK-A (NDPKAWT) and metastasis-associated S120G mutation (NDPKAS120G), negatively regulated c-myc mediated transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Similarity, NDPK-B also displayed an inhibitory effect on c-myc transcription in both cell lines. When combined with NDPK-B, NDPK-A suppressed c-myc transcription more strongly than either protein alone. On the other hand, knockdown of endogenous NDPK-A and/or NDPK-B enhanced c-myc transcription. Under oxidative stress, knockdown of NDPK-A decreased cell viability by ~15% relative to the control cells. Knockdown of both NDPK-A and NDPK-B further decreased cell viability by ~50% after H2O2 treatment. Additionally, knockdown of NDPK-A increased the migration potential, whereas knockdown of NDPK-B reduced its migration capacity compared with the control. However, knockdown NDPK-A and/or NDPK-B did not significantly affect the proliferation of HeLa cells. These findings provide a link between metastasis-associated alterations of NDPK-A and c-myc deregulation.
1. Introduction
1.1 NM23/Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase in Human Cancers ……………………. 7
1.2 NDPK-A and NDPK-B in gene regulation …………………………………….... 8
1.3 Oligomeric structure of NDPK-A and NDPK-B ……………………………....... 9
1.4 The c-myc concogene ……..………………………………….………...……..…. 10
1.5 Hypothesis …………..……………………………………..………………..…… 11

2. Materials and methods
2.1 Cell lines, plasmids and transfection …..……………..………………..………..…. 12
2.2 Establish stable knockdown cell lines ………………..……………..…………..…. 12
2.3 Site – directed mutagenesis PCR ……………………..…..……………………..…. 13
2.4 Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ……..……………....…. 14
2.5 Quantitative Real-time Reverse Transcription-PCR ………..………………......…. 14
2.6 CAT and β-GAL assays …………..………………………………………….……. 15
2.7 Protein Isolation and Western Blot Analysis …………………………………….….. 15
2.8 Survival assay …………………………………………………………………..….. 16
2.9 Proliferation assays ……………………………………………………………..….. 16
2.10 In vitro cell migration assay …………………………………………………...…. 17
2.10 Statistical analysis ……………………………………………...…………….…... 17

3. Experimental results
3.1 Overexpression of wide type, S120G mutant and H118F mutant of NDPK-A suppress
the c-myc promoter activity ……...……………………………..…………........…. 18
3.2 Suppression of NDPK-A in c-myc transcription requires NHEIII1 and upstream cis-
elements in NB69 cells ……………………………….….......…………………...…. 19
3.3 Intra-molecular disulfide bond is not required for the suppression effect of NDPK-A on the c-myc promoter activity ……...………………………………………………...… 20
3.4 Altered ratios of NDPK-A and NDPK-B affect c-myc transcription …..…………..... 21
3.5 Knockdown of NDPK-A and/ or NDPK-B expression decreases cell viability under
H2O2 –induced oxidative stress ……...…………………………………………..… 22
3.6 Knockdown NDPK-A and/or NDPK-B expression displays different migration
potential in HeLa cells …….......…………………….………………………….... 23
3.7 Knockdown NDPK-A and/or NDPK-B does not affect the proliferative capacities of
HeLa cells ……………………………………………………………..……...….… 24

4. Discussion …………….………………………….……………….… 25
5. Conclusion ……………………………………….…………………. 30
6. References …………………………………………..……………… 31
7. Table …………………………………………………..……………… 36
8. Figures ………………………………………………………………... 37
9. Abbreviation list .…………………………………………………... 49
10 Appendix ...…………………………………………………………... 50
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