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研究生:黃詩茹
研究生(外文):Huang, Shi-Ru
論文名稱:戰爭創傷敘事:派特巴克《再生三部曲》
論文名稱(外文):Narratives of War Trauma:Pat Barker’s Regeneration Trilogy
指導教授:張淑麗張淑麗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Li, Chang
口試委員:張錦忠李翠玉
口試委員(外文):Tee Kim TongTsui-Yu Jade Lee
口試日期:2010-07-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:派特巴克戰爭戰爭創傷敘事
外文關鍵詞:Pat BarkerWarNarratives of War Trauma
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派特巴克 (Pat Barker) 所著的《再生三部曲》(Regeneration trilogy) 主要描寫英國士兵在第一次大戰時經歷的創傷經驗。本篇主要探討巴克如何藉由非主流歷史所論述的戰爭觀點,以創傷理論的角度重新詮釋一次大戰的歷史。探討主題分為兩個方向:巴克如何藉由心理醫生瑞何的傾聽過程來解釋軍人的創傷論述;其次,她如何用戰士與非戰士的語言與行動揭陋英國本土報章雜誌抹黑同性戀族群與和平主義者的報導。第一章以勇士精神為主題,檢視男性無論是出於本能或是社會主流價值觀的影響的英雄主義需求。其中,藉由克里斯多福柯可 (Christopher Coker) 在《勇士精神》 (The Warrior Ethos) 中耙梳的勇士特質,與荷馬 (Homer) 的兩部巨作《伊里亞德》(Iliad) 與《奧德賽》(Odyssey),延伸探討西方自古希臘時代傳承下來的勇士文化,並解釋勇於上戰場的士兵是受勇士精神驅使抑或他們愛國情操的影響。第二章使用凱西卡路斯 (Cathy Caruth)、羅傑西門 (Roger I. Simon) 以及雪倫陶德 (Sharon Todd) 對現代創傷理論的詮釋,著重如何運用我們有限的知識,以一種道德性與急迫性的方式去傾聽創傷論述中隱而不彰的故事。第三章借用瑞尼吉哈德 (René Girard) 的迫害文本論述,進一步探討巴克如何藉由羅婆比愛蒂 (Roper Beattie) 和報章雜誌抹黑同性戀族群的報導補遺主流戰爭歷史論述的盲點並提供英國現代讀者重新檢驗他們歷史的機會。如同劇場舞台上演出宰殺羔羊的橋段,巴克藉由小說展演加諸在軍人、反戰詩人、和平主義者及同性戀族群上的暴力枷鎖,探討他們如何成為待宰羔羊,又如何以替罪羊的姿態反抗與發聲。最後在本文的研究中發現唯有了解暴力的本質,人類才有根絕暴力的可能性。
Pat Barker’s Regeneration trilogy—Regeneration (1991), The Eye in the Door (1993), and The Ghost Road (1995)—tackles the trauma suffered by British soldiers during the Great War. This thesis explores how Barker “regenerates” the history of WWI by focusing on those memories of the war that are hidden or suppressed by the dominant account of it. My argument is framed by two related research questions. First of all, how does Barker make use of W.H.R. Rivers’s role as a military psychiatrist to decipher soldiers’ ‘traumatic narratives’? Second, how does she use combatants’ words and actions to unravel newspaper stories that blackmailed homosexuals and pacifists in England? Chapter One of this thesis elaborates the theme of the warrior ethos, examining men’s need, instinctive or socially constructed, either to pursue a glorious life, or to seek affirmation in the eyes of others. I trace the Greek warrior culture through Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, using the interpretative paradigm developed by Christopher Coker in his The Warrior Ethos to understand how the warrior ethos has influenced Western society since the ancient Greeks. To what degree, I ask, is their decision motivated less by patriotism than by the warrior ethos? Chapter Two tackles Cathy Caruth’s, Roger I. Simon’s, and Sharon Todd’s interpretations of the contemporary theories to demonstrate that it is ethical and imperative to find hidden meanings in “the traumatic narratives,” yet at the same time to be aware of our epistemological limit. Chapter Three borrows René Girard theory of “texts of persecution” to study the story of Roper Beattie and newspaper stories that concerns about homosexuality, with which Barker provides her contemporary readers a supplement to examine their past, especially those facts that are taken for granted. By delineating the persecutions of various scapegoats (soldiers, war poets, pacifists, and homosexuals), and their resistance to violence during World War I, Barker offers in her trilogy a space that is similar to the stage of theater where the nature of violence is most distinctly shown. In the end, Barker suggests that it is only when we realize the nature of violence can we defend ourselves against it.
Introduction
...........................................................1
Chapter One: Warrior Ethos
..........................................................11
Chapter Two: Regeneration and War Trauma
..........................................................35
Chapter Three: Sacrifice and Scapegoats
..........................................................59
Conclusion
..........................................................84
Works Cited
..........................................................89
Barker, Pat. Regeneration. New York: Plume, 1991. Print.
---. The Eye in The Door. New York: Plume, 1993. Print.
---. The Ghost Road. London: Penguin Books, 1996. Print.
Brannigan, John. Pat Barker: Contemporary British Novelists. New Yorker: Manchester U P, 2005. Print.
---. “An Interview with Pat Barker.” Contemporary Literature 46.3 (2005): 366- 92. Project Muse. Web. 5 May 2009.
Brown, Dennis. “The Regeneration Trilogy: Total War, Anthropology, and the Talking Cure.” Monteith 187-202.
The Bible: The Old Testament. Lawall 47-95. Authorized King James Vers.
Caruth, Cathy. “Traumatic Awakenings: Freud, Lacan and the Ethics of Memory.” Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1996. 91-112. Print.
---. “Trauma and Experience.” The Holocaust: Theoretical Readings. Eds. Neil Levi and Michael Rothberg. New Brunswick: Rutger UP, 2003. 192-8. Print.
---. “Introduction: The Wound and the Voice.” Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1996. 1-9. Print.
Coker, Christopher. The Warrior Ethos. London: Routledge, 2007. Print.
Foucault, Michel. The Foucault Reader. Ed. Paul Rabinow. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. Print.
Falconer, Rachel. Hell in Contemporary Literature: Western Descent Narratives Since 1945. Edinburgh UP, 2005. Print.
Girard, René. The Scapegoat. Trans. Yvonne Freccero. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1986. Print.
Gebauer, Gunter, and Christoph Wulf. “The Mimesis of Violence (Girard).” Mimesis: Culture—Art—Society. Trans. Don Reneau. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. 255-66. Print.
Hipp, Daniel. The Poetry of Shell Shock: Wartime Trauma and Healing in Wilfred Owen, Ivor Gurney and Siegfried Sassoon. Jefferson: Mafarland Inc., 2005. Print.
Hamilton, Edith. Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes. New York: Warner Books, 1969. Print.
Homer. The Iliad. Trans. Robert Fagles. Lawall 98-189.
---. The Odyssey. Trans. Robert Fagles. Lawall 209-500.
Hemmings, Robert. “‘The Blameless Physician’: Narrative and Pain, Sassoon and Rivers.” Literature and Medicine 24.1 (2005):109-26. Project Muse. Web. 2 Feb. 2010.
Johnson, Robert. British Imperialism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print.
Kellerman, Henry. The Psychoanalysis of Symptoms. New York: Springer, 2007. Google Book Search. Web. 25 Oct. 2009.
Lawall, Sarah, et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of World Masterpiece. 7 th ed. Vol. 1. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. Print.
Lewis, C. Day, ed. The Collected Poems of Wilfred Owen. New York: Chatto & Windus, 1963. Print.
McLaren, Angus. Twentieth-Century Sexuality: A History. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 1999. Print.
Monteith, Sharon, et al.,eds. Critical Perspectives on Pat Barker. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005. Print.
Nixon, Rob. “An Interview with Pat Barker.” Contemporary Literature 45.1 (2004): 1-21. Project Muse. Web. 5 May 2009.
Rivers, W.H.R. Medicine, Magic and Religion. London: Routledge, 2001. Print.
Simon, Riger I. The Touch of the Past: Remembrance, Learning, and Ethics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.
Shaddock, Jennifer. “Dreams of Melanesia: Masculinity and the Exorcism of War in Pat Barker’s The Ghost Road.” MFS Modern Fiction Studies 52.3 (2006): 656-74. Project Muse. Web. 5 May 2009.
“Scapegoat.” Collins Cobuild English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 3rd ed. 2001. Print.
Todd, Sharon. Learning from the Other: Levinas, Psychoanalysis, and Ethical Possibilities in Education. New York: State University of New York Press, 2003. Print.
Whitehead, Anne. “Open to Suggestion: Hypnosis and History in the Regeneration Trilogy.” Monteith 203-18.
Westman, Karin E. Pat Barker’s Regeneration: A Reader’s Guide. New York: The Continuum International, 2001. Print.
Wilson, Jean Moorcroft. Siegfried Sassoon: The Making of a War Poet. A Biography 1886-1918. London: Duckworth, 2004. Print.
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