(54.226.30.186) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/06/27 18:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:蘇茹可
研究生(外文):ClaudiaSoruco
論文名稱:Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Population: Causality Relationship in Latin American and The Caribbean Countries
論文名稱(外文):Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Population: Causality Relationship in Latin American and The Caribbean Countries
指導教授:張靜之張靜之引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Chih Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:國際管理碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
外文關鍵詞:Energy ConsumptionEconomic GrowthCarbon Dioxide EmissionsPopulationCausalityLatin America and the Caribbean
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:633
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
This study examines the causality relationship among energy consumption, economic growth, carbon dioxide emission and population in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region over the period 1971-2005. The main purpose for testing the relationship among these variables is, to know in which of the analyzed countries it would be possible to implement conserving energy policies without affecting their economic growth. The methodology includes the use of Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, in order to test the (non) stationarity of the variables; the use of Johansen maximum likelihood procedure, in order to test the existence of cointegration among the variables; vector error correction modeling (VECM), in order to analyze the direction of the causality, and distinguish between short and long run causality; and, if cointegration is not found, vector autoregression (VAR) and Granger causality, in order to determine if the past and present values of the independent variables provide some useful information to forecast the dependent variables in the short term. The results indicate that only in seven countries it will be possible to implement conserving energy polices without affecting their economic growth, the other thirteen should care about their economic growth before design any conserving energy policy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I
ABSTRACT III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES IX
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.1.1 Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2
1.1.2 Latin American and the Caribbean Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Energy Sector. 5
1.1.3 Latin American and the Caribbean Macroeconomic Situation. 7
1.2 Motivation. 8
1.3 Research Purposes. 9
1.4 Research Objectives. 10
1.5 Research Structure and Flow. 11
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 Definition of Relevant Research Variables. 13
2.1.1 Economic Growth. 13
2.1.2 Energy Consumption. 14
2.2 Relationship among Research Variables. 15
2.2.1 Energy Consumption – Economic Growth Nexus. 15
2.2.2 CO2 Emissions and the Environmental Kuznets Curve. 24
2.2.3 Population, Energy Consumption, Pollution and Global Warming. 25
2.2.4 Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Population. 26
2.3 Latin American and the Caribbean Energy Consumption – Economic Growth Nexus. 27
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 34
3.1 Research Design. 34
3.2 Research Variables. 35
3.3 Data Collection. 35
3.4 Data Analysis Procedure. 36
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics Analysis. 37
3.4.2 Unit Roots. 38
3.4.3 Cointegration and the Vector Error Correction Model. 40
3.4.4 Granger Causality. 43
3.5 Hypotheses to be Tested. 44
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 47
4.1 Descriptive Statistics. 47
4.2 Unit Roots. 51
4.3 Cointegration. 54
4.4 Vector Error Correction Model. 57
4.5 Vector Autoregression. 61
4.6 Granger Causality. 63
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, CONTRIBUTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 66
5.1 Research Conclusions. 66
5.2 Research Contributions. 71
5.3 Research Suggestions. 72
5.4 Research Limitations. 72
REFERENCES 74
APPENDICES 82
Appendix 1: 82

Abosedra, S., & Baghestani, H. (1991). New evidence on the causal relationship between United States energy consumption and gross national product. Journal of Energy and Development, 14(2), 285-292.
Akaike, H. (1974). A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19(6), 716-723.
Akarca, A., & Long, T. (1980). On the relationship between energy and GNP: A reexamination. Journal of Energy and Development, 5(2), 326-331.
Akinlo, A. (2008). Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from 11 Sub-Sahara African countries. Energy Economics, 30(5), 2391-2400.
Al-Iriani, M. (2006). Energy-GDP relationship revisited: An example from GCC countries using panel causality. Energy Policy, 34(17), 3342-3350.
Altinay, G., & Karagol, E. (2004). Structural break, unit root, and the causality between energy consumption and GDP in Turkey. Energy Economics, 26(6), 985-994.
Ang, J. (2007). CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy, 35(10), 4772-4778.
Ang, J. (2008). Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia. Journal of Policy Modeling, 30(2), 271-278.
Apergis, N., & Payne, J. (2009a). CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America. Energy Policy, 37(8), 3282-3286.
Apergis, N., & Payne, J. (2009b). Energy consumption and economic growth in Central America: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model. Energy Economics, 31(2), 211-216.
Apergis, N., & Payne, J. (2009c). Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from the Commonwealth of Independent States. Energy Economics, 31(5), 641-647.
Aqeel, A., & Butt, M. (2001). The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan. Asia-Pacific Development Journal, 8(2), 101-109.
Arbex, M., & Perobelli, F. (2009). Solow meets Leontief: Economic growth and energy consumption. Energy Economics, 32(1), 43-53.
Asafu-Adjaye, J. (2000). The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: Time series evidence from Asian developing countries. Energy Economics, 22(6), 615-625.
Asif, M., & Muneer, T. (2007). Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11(7), 1388-1413.
Banerjee, A. (1993). Co-integration, error correction, and the econometric analysis of non-stationary data: Oxford University Press, USA.
Barcena, A., Malchik, S., Prado, A., & Samaniego, J. (Eds.). (2009) United Nations. Santiago, Chile: United Nations.
Belloumi, M. (2009). Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia: Cointegration and causality analysis. Energy Policy, 37(7), 2745-2753.
Bongaarts, J. (1992). Population growth and global warming. Population and Development Review, 18(2), 299-319.
Bowden, N., & Payne, J. (2009). The causal relationship between US energy consumption and real output: A disaggregated analysis. Journal of Policy Modeling, 31(2), 180-188.
Carrion-i-Silvestre, J., Castro, T., L?pez-Bazo, E., Diagonal, A., de Ci?ncies Econ?miques, E., & Street, H. (2005). Breaking the panels: An application to the GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal, 8(2), 159-175.
Chen, S., Kuo, H., & Chen, C. (2007). The relationship between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 Asian countries. Energy Policy, 35(4), 2611-2621.
Cheng, B. (1995). An investigation of cointegration and causality between energy consumption and economic growth. Journal of Energy and Development, 21(1), 73-84.
Cheng, B. (1997). Energy consumption and economic growth in Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela: A time series analysis. Applied Economics Letters, 4(11), 671-674.
Cheng, B. (1998). Energy Consumption, employment and causality in Japan: A multivariate approach. Indian Economic Review, 33(1), 19-29.
Cheng, B. (1999). Causality between energy consumption and economic growth in India: An application of cointegration and error-correction modeling. Indian Economic Review, 34(1), 39-49.
Cheng, B., & Lai, T. (1997). An investigation of co-integration and causality between energy consumption and economic activity in Taiwan. Energy Economics, 19(4), 435-444.
Chiou-Wei, S., Chen, C., & Zhu, Z. (2008). Economic growth and energy consumption revisited—evidence from linear and nonlinear Granger causality. Energy Economics, 30(6), 3063-3076.
Chontanawat, J., Hunt, L., & Pierse, R. (2008). Does energy consumption cause economic growth?: Evidence from a systematic study of over 100 countries. Journal of Policy Modeling, 30(2), 209-220.
de Janosi, P., & Grayson, L. (1972). Patterns of energy consumption and economic growth and structure. Journal of Development Studies, 8(2), 241-249.
Dickey, D. (1976). Estimation and hypothesis testing in nonstationary time series. Iowa State University.
Dickey, D., & Fuller, W. (1979). Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Journal of the American statistical association, 74(366), 427-431.
Dietz, T., & Rosa, E. (1997). Effects of population and affluence on CO2 emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(1), 175-179.
Dijkgraaf, E., & Vollebergh, H. (2001). A note on testing for environmental Kuznets Curves. OCFEB Research Memorandum, 102-122.
Engle, R., & Granger, C. (1987). Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing. Econometrica, 55(2), 251-276.
Erdal, G., Erdal, H., & Eseng?n, K. (2008). The causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey. Energy Policy, 36(10), 3838-3842.
Erol, U., & Yu, E. (1987). On the causal relationship between energy and income for industrialized countries. Journal of Energy and Development, 13(1), 113-122.
Focacci, A. (2005). Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: The cases of Brazil, China and India. Energy Policy, 33(4), 543-554.
Francis, B., Moseley, L., & Iyare, S. (2007). Energy Consumption and projected growth in selected Caribbean countries. Energy Economics, 29(6), 1224-1232.
Fuller, W. (1976). Introduction to Statistical Time Series. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Geweke, J., Meese, R., & Dent, W. (1983). Comparing alternative tests of causality in temporal systems: Analytic results and experimental evidence. Journal of Econometrics, 21(2), 161-194.
Ghali, K., & El-Sakka, M. (2004). Energy use and output growth in Canada: A multivariate cointegration analysis. Energy Economics, 26(2), 225-238.
Glasure, Y. (2002). Energy and national income in Korea: Further evidence on the role of omitted variables. Energy Economics, 24(4), 355-365.
Glasure, Y., & Lee, A. (1998). Cointegration, error-correction, and the relationship between GDP and energy: The case of South Korea and Singapore. Resource and Energy Economics, 20(1), 17-25.
Granger, C. (1969). Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods. Econometrica, 37(3), 424-438.
Granger, C. (1981). Some properties of time series data and their use in econometric model specification. Journal of Econometrics, 16(1), 121-130.
Granger, C., Weiss, A., Karlin, S., Amemiya, T., & Goodman, L. (1983). Studies in econometrics, time series and multivariate statistics. New York: Academic Press
Greene, W. (2003). Econometric analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Guilkey, D., & Salemi, M. (1982). Small sample properties of three tests for Granger-causal ordering in a bivariate stochastic system. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 64(4), 668-680.
Halicioglu, F. (2009). An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey. Energy Policy, 37(3), 1156-1164.
Ho, C., & Siu, K. (2007). A dynamic equilibrium of electricity consumption and GDP in Hong Kong: An empirical investigation. Energy Policy, 35(4), 2507-2513.
Holdren, J. (1991). Population and the energy problem. Population & Environment, 12(3), 231-255.
Holtz-Eakin, D., & Selden, T. (1995). Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth. Journal of Public Economics, 57(1), 85-101.
Hondroyiannis, G., Lolos, S., & Papapetrou, E. (2002). Energy consumption and economic growth: Assessing the evidence from Greece. Energy Economics, 24(4), 319-336.
Hsiao, C. (1981). Autoregressive modelling and money-income causality detection* 1. Journal of Monetary Economics, 7(1), 85-106.
Huang, B.-N., Hwang, M., & Yang, C. (2008). Causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP growth revisited: A dynamic panel data approach. Ecological Economics, 67(1), 41-54.
Hwang, D., & Gum, B. (1992). The causal relationship between energy and GNP: The case of Taiwan. The Journal of Energy and Development, 16(2), 219-226.
Ipcc, C. (2007). Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change.
Jobert, T., & Karanfil, F. (2007). Sectoral energy consumption by source and economic growth in Turkey. Energy Policy, 35(11), 5447-5456.
Johansen, S. (1988). Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors. Journal of economic dynamics and control, 12(2-3), 231-254.
Jumbe, C. (2004). Cointegration and causality between electricity consumption and GDP: Empirical evidence from Malawi. Energy Economics, 26(1), 61-68.
Karanfil, F. (2008). Energy consumption and economic growth revisited: Does the size of unrecorded economy matter? Energy Policy, 36(8), 3019-3025.
Kraft, J., & Kraft, A. (1978). On the relationship between energy and GNP. Journal of Energy and Development, 3(2), 326-331.
Kuntsi-Reunanen, E. (2007). A comparison of Latin American energy-related CO2 emissions from 1970 to 2001. Energy Policy, 35(1), 586-596.
Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic growth and income inequality. The American Economic Review, 45(1), 1-28.
Lee, C. (2005). Energy consumption and GDP in developing countries: A cointegrated panel analysis. Energy Economics, 27(3), 415-427.
Lee, C. (2006). The causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in G-11 countries revisited. Energy Policy, 34(9), 1086-1093.
Lee, C., & Chang, C. (2005). Structural breaks, energy consumption, and economic growth revisited: Evidence from Taiwan. Energy Economics, 27(6), 857-872.
Lee, C., & Chang, C. (2007a). Energy consumption and GDP revisited: A panel analysis of developed and developing countries. Energy Economics, 29(6), 1206-1223.
Lee, C., & Chang, C. (2007b). The impact of energy consumption on economic growth: Evidence from linear and nonlinear models in Taiwan. Energy, 32(12), 2282-2294.
Lee, C., & Chang, C. (2008). Energy consumption and economic growth in Asian economies: A more comprehensive analysis using panel data. Resource and Energy Economics, 30(1), 50-65.
Lee, C., Chang, C., & Chen, P. (2008). Energy-income causality in OECD countries revisited: The key role of capital stock. Energy Economics, 30(5), 2359-2373.
Lise, W., & Van Montfort, K. (2007). Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey: Is there a co integration relationship? Energy Economics, 29(6), 1166-1178.
MacKellar, F., Lutz, W., Prinz, C., & Goujon, A. (1995). Population, households, and CO 2 emissions. Population and Development Review, 21(4), 849-865.
Maddala, G., Kim, I. . (1998). Unit roots, cointegration, and structural change. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
Mahadevan, R., & Asafu-Adjaye, J. (2007). Energy consumption, economic growth and prices: A reassessment using panel VECM for developed and developing countries. Energy Policy, 35(4), 2481-2490.
Masih, A., & Masih, R. (1996). Energy consumption, real income and temporal causality: Results from a multi-country study based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques. Energy Economics, 18(3), 165-183.
Masih, A., & Masih, R. (1997). On the temporal causal relationship between energy consumption, real income, and prices: Some new evidence from Asian-energy dependent NICs based on a multivariate cointegration/vector error-correction approach. Journal of Policy Modeling, 19(4), 417-440.
Mazur, A. (1994). How does population growth contribute to rising energy consumption in America? Population & Environment, 15(5), 371-378.
Mehrara, M. (2007). Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries. Energy Policy, 35(5), 2939-2945.
Mishra, V., Sharma, S., & Smyth, R. (2009). Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries. Energy Policy, 37(6), 2318-2326.
Moomaw, W., & Unruh, G. (1997). Are environmental Kuznets curves misleading us? The case of CO2 emissions. Environment and Development Economics, 2(4), 451-463.
Mozumder, P., & Marathe, A. (2007). Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh. Energy Policy, 35(1), 395-402.
Nachane, D., Nadkarni, R., & Karnik, A. (1988). Co-integration and causality testing of the energy-GDP relationship: A cross-country study. Applied Economics, 20(11), 1511-1531.
Narayan, P., & Narayan, S. (2009). Carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: Panel data evidence from developing countries. Energy Policy, 38(1), 661-666.
Narayan, P., & Smyth, R. (2008). Energy consumption and real GDP in G7 countries: New evidence from panel cointegration with structural breaks. Energy Economics, 30(5), 2331-2341.
Nelson, C., & Plosser, C. (1982). Trends and random walks in macroeconomic time series: Some evidence and implications. Journal of Monetary Economics, 10(2), 139-162.
Oh, W., & Lee, K. (2004). Causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP revisited: The case of Korea 1970–1999. Energy Economics, 26(1), 51-59.
Ozturk, I. (2009). A literature survey on energy–growth nexus. Energy Policy, 38(1), 340-349.
Pantula, S., Gonzalez-Farias, G., & Fuller, W. (1994). A comparison of unit-root test criteria. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 12(4), 449-459.
Paul, S., & Bhattacharya, R. (2004). Causality between energy consumption and economic growth in India: A note on conflicting results. Energy Economics, 26(6), 977-983.
Payne, J. (2009). On the dynamics of energy consumption and output in the US. Applied Energy, 86(4), 575-577.
Phillips, P., & Perron, P. (1988). Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrika, 75(2), 335.
Pimentel, D., Cooperstein, S., Randell, H., Filiberto, D., Sorrentino, S., Kaye, B., et al. (2007). Ecology of increasing diseases: Population growth and environmental degradation. Human Ecology, 35(6), 653-668.
Raupach, M., Marland, G., Ciais, P., Le Qu?r?, C., Canadell, J., Klepper, G., et al. (2007). Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(24), 10288-10293.
Sari, R., & Soytas, U. (2007). The growth of income and energy consumption in six developing countries. Energy Policy, 35(2), 889-898.
Schmalensee, R., Stoker, T., & Judson, R. (1998). World carbon dioxide emissions: 1950-2050. Review of Economics and Statistics, 80(1), 15-27.
Shiu, A., & Lam, P. (2004). Electricity consumption and economic growth in China. Energy Policy, 32(1), 47-54.
Soytas, U., & Sari, R. (2003). Energy consumption and GDP: Causality relationship in G-7 countries and emerging markets. Energy Economics, 25(1), 33-37.
Soytas, U., & Sari, R. (2006). Energy consumption and income in G-7 countries. Journal of Policy Modeling, 28(7), 739-750.
Soytas, U., & Sari, R. (2009). Energy consumption, economic growth, and carbon emissions: Challenges faced by an EU candidate member. Ecological Economics, 68(6), 1667-1675.
Soytas, U., Sari, R., & Ozdemir, O. (2001). Energy consumption and GDP relation in Turkey: A cointegration and vector error correction analysis. Economies and Business in Transition: Facilitating Competitiveness and Change in the Global Environment Proceedings, USA: Global Business and Technology Association, 838–844.
Squalli, J. (2007). Electricity consumption and economic growth: Bounds and causality analyses of OPEC members. Energy Economics, 29(6), 1192-1205.
Stern, D. (1993). Energy and economic growth in the USA. A multivariate approach. Energy Economics, 15(2), 137-150.
Stern, D. (2000). A multivariate cointegration analysis of the role of energy in the US macroeconomy. Energy Economics, 22(2), 267-283.
Stock, J. H., & Watson, M. W. (1989). Interpreting the evidence on money-income causality. Journal of Econometrics, 40(1), 161-181.
Thomas, R. L. (1993). Introductory econometrics: Theory and applications. London: Longman.
Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2004). Disaggregated industrial energy consumption and GDP: The case of Shanghai, 1952–1999. Energy Economics, 26(1), 69-75.
Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2005). Energy demand and economic growth: The African experience. Journal of Policy Modeling, 27(8), 891-903.
Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2009). Energy consumption and economic growth: The experience of African countries revisited. Energy Economics, 31(2), 217-224.
Yoo, S. (2005). Electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Korea. Energy Policy, 33(12), 1627-1632.
Yu, E., & Choi, J. (1985). The causal relationship between energy and GNP: An international comparison. Journal of Energy and Development, 10(2), 249-272.
Yu, E., & Hwang, B. (1984). Relationship between energy and GNP: Further results. Energy Econ, 6(3), 186-189.
Yu, E., & Jin, J. (1992). Cointegration tests of energy consumption, income, and employment. Resources and Energy, 14(3), 259-266.
Zachariadis, T. (2007). Exploring the relationship between energy use and economic growth with bivariate models: New evidence from G-7 countries. Energy Economics, 29(6), 1233-1253.
Zamani, M. (2007). Energy consumption and economic activities in Iran. Energy Economics, 29(6), 1135-1140.
Zhang, X., & Cheng, X. (2009). Energy consumption, carbon emissions, and economic growth in China. Ecological Economics, 68(10), 2706-2712.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔