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研究生:陳長泰
研究生(外文):Cheng-TaiChen
論文名稱:基於田口方法之模型預測控制應用於雷射振鏡定位之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Taguchi Method based Model Predictive Control for Laser Scanner Positioning Application
指導教授:鄭銘揚鄭銘揚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Yang Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:振鏡馬達模型預測控制虛擬微分回授前饋控制田口方法基因演算法
外文關鍵詞:galvanometermodel predictive controlpseudo derivative feedback with feedforward controlTaguchi methodgenetic Algorithms
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現今電子產品之發展趨勢不僅須提供強大功能,其外型亦要求輕小。為了滿足此需求,於許多電子產品之製造上,雷射加工技術已逐漸取代傳統機械加工方式。在眾多雷射系統中,振鏡式雷射加工系統於近年來備受注目,其原因在於該系統之掃描元件-振鏡馬達具有高轉矩-轉動慣量比、時間常數小和響應速度快等優點。而目前市售雷射振鏡系統大多搭配類比式控制器,雖然類比系統擁有高解析度與取樣速率無限制等優點,但類比式控制架構卻有控制參數調整不易、控制策略之挑選受限制和參數容易受外在環境影響等缺點。為解決上述問題,本論文將發展一應用於雷射振鏡系統之數位控制器。為利於控制器之設計,本論文透過受控系統之步階響應估測振鏡馬達的二階近似模型。在雷射振鏡系統之定位控制問題上,本論文選用擁有線上運算容易和控制效果良好等優點之模型預測控制法則,再藉由田口方法尋求其最佳控制參數組合,並與基於基因演算法之比例積分微分控制器和本論文所改良之虛擬微分回授前饋控制器進行性能比較,最後以實驗驗證本論文所提方法之可行性。實驗結果顯示,模型預測控制法對於不同振幅之步階命令,均能有效地同時降低振鏡定位系統的安定時間、最大超越量與穩態誤差。
The development trend of modern electronic devices is to design and manufacture versatile, powerful, lighter and smaller products. In order to meet this requirement, in many electronic product manufacturing processes, the traditional machining approaches have been gradually replaced by laser machining. Among the laser machining applications, the galvanometer laser system attracts a lot of attention due to the fact that the galvanometer has many attractive features such as high torque-to-inertia ratio, low time constant and fast response for machining. In general, most commercial galvanometer laser systems are equipped with analog controllers. Although the analog controller has advantages such as high resolution and unlimited sampling rate, it also has several drawbacks, e.g., hard to tune the control parameters, limited choices of control strategies, and control parameters are sensitive to the environment. To overcome the aforementioned difficulties, this thesis is aimed at developing a digital controller for the galvanometer laser system. Firstly, to help design the controller, a second-order model of the galvanometer motor is derived using the step response approach. In addition, due to the capability of online calculation and good control performance, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach is employed in this thesis to deal with the position control problem of the galvanometer laser systems. In the proposed approach, the optimum parameters of MPC are determined using the Taguchi method. Furthermore, the performance comparison among the proposed MPC based approach, the GA-Based PID controller and the Pseudo Derivative Feedback (PDF) with Feedforward controller modified in this thesis are also performed. Finally, several experiments have been conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MPC based approach can effectively reduce the settling time, maximum overshoot, and steady-state error of the galvanometer positioning system under different amplitudes of step input commands.
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅲ
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄
圖目錄 XII

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 簡介 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 文獻回顧 3
1.3.1 模型預測控制 3
1.3.2 基因演算法 5
1.3.3 田口方法 6
1.4 論文架構 8
第二章 雷射振鏡系統 9
2.1 基本原理 9
2.2 振鏡馬達種類 10
2.2.1 動鐵式 10
2.2.2 動圈式 12
2.2.3 動磁式 13
2.2.4 綜合比較 13
2.3 位置感測器 15
2.3.1 光學式位置感測器 15
2.3.2 電容式位置感測器 16
2.4 F-Theta透鏡 17
2.5馬達數學模型 18
第三章 控制器設計 21
3.1 模型預測控制 21
3.1.1 基本原理 21
3.1.2 擴增模型 25
3.1.3 多步預測 26
3.1.4 控制律 27
3.1.5 參數對系統性能之影響 29
3.1.6 閉迴路穩定條件 30
3.1.7 狀態變數之選擇 31
3.2 PDF+Feedforward控制器 33
3.2.1 PID 控制器 33
3.2.2 PDF控制器 35
3.2.3 PDF+Feedforward控制器 36
第四章 參數搜尋法 40
4.1 基因演算法 40
4.1.1 編碼方式 40
4.1.2 選擇與複製 42
4.1.3 交配 43
4.1.4 突變 45
4.1.5 懲罰機制 45
4.1.6 保護機制 46
4.1.7 終止條件 46
4.2 田口方法 48
4.2.1 品質特性、S/N比與理想機能 48
4.2.2 控制因子、變動水準與直交表 49
4.2.3 反應表與反應圖 51
4.2.4 遞迴直交表實驗法 52
4.2.5 多品質特性之直交表實驗法 53
第五章 實驗設備及結果 54
5.1 實驗系統架構 54
5.1.1 硬體設備 55
5.1.2 軟體設備 57
5.2實驗一:系統模型建立與驗證 59
5.3實驗二:步階定位控制 65
5.3.1 馬達偏轉角度與輸出電壓之關係 65
5.3.2 運動控制卡AD/DA之測試與校正 66
5.3.3 步階命令之選擇 69
5.3.4 實驗參數設定 69
5.3.5 實驗數據之討論與分析 70
第六章 結論與建議 81
6.1 結論 81
6.2 未來研究方向與建議 82
參考文獻 83
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