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研究生:林政陽
研究生(外文):Lin, Zeng-Yang
論文名稱:機車排放係數及其劣化率之研究
論文名稱(外文):Emission factors and their deterioration rate of motorcycles
指導教授:吳義林
指導教授(外文):Wu, Yee-Lin
口試委員:李文智賴進興林清和
口試日期:2010-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:排放係數多元迴歸隧道實驗HONO干擾生成值MOBILE6.2
外文關鍵詞:Emission factorMulti-RegressionTunnel studyHONO ArtifactMOBILE6.2
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本研究於民族機車地下道進行PM2.5、PM10、NH3、HONO、NOx、CO、SO2及醛酮類之採樣分析,同時量測其粒狀污染物粒徑分佈,採樣目的欲求取機車污染物之排放係數,同時以車牌辨識系統擷取採樣期間之車籍資料,將車籍資料整理成MOBILE6.2模式之參數,進行排放係數之模擬比對。自動監測儀器採樣結果,計算所得之排放係數,配合車籍資料,以多元迴歸方式求取各車齡下之排放係數,進一步求取機車排放之劣化率。
HONO採樣易受還原性物質等影響,本研究考慮隧道之環境,假設NO2為其主要干擾來源,因此進行NO2濃度對蜂巢管產生HONO干擾值之實驗,其結果顯示NO2濃度越高,HONO干擾生成值越大,兩者關係式以二次多項式表示為Y=-0.0001×X2+0.1441×X,其中Y為HONO干擾生成值(ug/m3),X為NO2濃度(ppbv),本研究以此關係式修正隧道HONO採樣之結果。
車輛各污染物排放係數實驗結果:NOx為0.04±0.03 g/km、CO為4.03±3.31 g/km、PM2.5為28.9±11.3 mg/km、PM10為48.3±11.6 mg/km、NH3為3.5±3.3 mg/km、HONO為7.54±3.56 mg/km、Formaldehyde為20.6±9.6 mg/km、Acetaldehyde為2.74±1.64 mg/km、Acetone為2.63±1.78 mg/km、Propionaldehyde為1.21±0.49 mg/km、Crotonaldehyde為8.42±4.97 mg/km、Butyraldehyde為1.07±0.59 mg/km、Benzaldehyde為0.43±0.27 mg/km。NOx及CO排放之劣化率以多元迴歸方式求得,分別為0.0137及0.3806 g/km-10000km。
以MOBILE6.2模式推估值和實驗結果比對,僅CO之推估值與實驗值較為符合,如欲使用MOBILE6.2模式模擬本土車輛之排放,模式的部份尚需做許多的修正。
The purpose of this research is to measure the emission factor of motorcycle. This experiment was processing in the Ming-Zu tunnel. The sampling pollutants are PM2.5, PM10, NH3, HONO, NOx, CO, SO2 and carbonyls, and this study also measured the particle size distribution. In order to get the motorcycles’ information, like vehicle type and vehicle ages, this experiment used plate survey in the sampling period. This data would be taken into the MOBILE6.2 model, and then we compared the emission factor computing by the model and tunnel study. This study calculated the emission factor of motor in each year by multi-regression, and then we can use the VKT data to compute the deterioration rate of motor emission.
HONO artifact will be formed by reducing agent, this research assumed that HONO artifact mainly attributed to the NO2 pollutant because of the higher NO2 concentration in the tunnel. And after processing an experiment of NO2 sampling, we find out the result that is an quadratic equation: Y=-0.0001×X2+0.1441×X , which Y is represent for the HONO artifact(ug/m3), and X is represent for the NO2 concentration(ppbv). This study used this formula to correction the HONO concentration which was sampling in the tunnel.
The experimental emission factor of motorcycles in this research are, NOx : 0.04±0.03 g/km, CO : 4.03±3.31 g/km, PM2.5 : 28.9±11.3 mg/km, PM10 : 48.3±11.6 mg/km, NH3 : 3.5±3.3 mg/km, HONO : 7.54±3.56 mg/km, Formaldehyde : 20.6±9.6 mg/km, Acetaldehyde : 2.74±1.64 mg/km, Acetone : 2.63±1.78 mg/km, Propionaldehyde : 1.21±0.49 mg/km, Crotonaldehyde : 8.42±4.97 mg/km, Butyraldehyde : 1.07±0.59 mg/km, Benzaldehyde : 0.43±0.27 mg/km。The deterioration rate of NOx and CO calculating by multi-regression is 0.0137 and 0.3806 g/km-10000km, respectively.
Emission factor computed by MOBILE6.2 and tunnel study have some differences except for CO. The conclusion of this one is there must be a lot of corrections for MOBILE6.2 model if we want to simulate the motor emission factor in Taiwan.
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究架構 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 排放係數 5
2.1.1 動力計量測 5
2.1.2 路旁量測 6
2.1.3 車載量測系統 6
2.1.4 隧道實驗 6
2.1.5 模式推估 7
2.2 MOBILE系列模式 8
2.2.1 模式概述 8
2.2.2 模式推估原理 10
2.3 機車污染物排放係數特性 14
2.4 隧道實驗方法回顧 16
2.5 實測排放係數與模式比對 19
第三章 研究方法 28
3.1 實驗方法 28
3.1.1 排放係數計算方式 28
3.1.2 採樣地點 29
3.1.3 實驗設計 29
3.1.4 採樣方法及原理 29
3.1.5 分析方法 34
3.2 模式模擬 36
3.3 劣化率計算 37
第四章 結果與討論 45
4.1 NO2干擾實驗 45
4.2隧道採樣結果 51
4.2.1 車流量、車牌辨識系統資料調查 52
4.2.2 隧道污染物濃度分佈 53
4.3排放係數實驗結果 80
4.4零里程排放率與劣化率計算 92
4.5模式推估結果 94
第五章 結論與建議 99
5.1 結論 99
5.2 建議 100
參考文獻 101
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