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研究生:林信良
研究生(外文):Hsin-Liang Lin
論文名稱:廂式貨車搬貨下車之生物力學分析
論文名稱(外文):The Biomechanical Analysis of The Lowering Tasks From A Mini Van
指導教授:洪得明洪得明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Der-Ming Hong
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立體育大學
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:249
中文關鍵詞:L5/S1關節動作分析關節角度關節力量關節力矩
外文關鍵詞:L5/S1Motion analysisJoint angleJoint forceJoint moment
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從事人工搬運作業的人員,由於動作的特殊性,常導致L5/Sl 關節的壓力太大,引發下背部疼痛。而在運輸業中,搬貨下車更是經常進行的工作,工作人員也常有下背痛的問題。因此,有必要對常見「搬貨下車」的動作進行分析,以期對該類動作有進一步的了解。本研究目的在比較三種不同搬貨下車方式在L5/S1關節與下肢六個關節的關節角度、關節受力與關節力矩的差異。
本研究主要利用動作分析系統、測力板以及肌電儀器,收集 15 位受測者在三種搬貨下車作業時,呈現在下肢運動學、動力學及肌電訊號的相關數據進行分析。搬運作業型態包括正面搬貨下車、背面搬貨下車與原地搬貨下車三種,使用3D動態生物力學模式來計算L5/Sl 關節與下肢的關節作用力及力矩,並進行單因子變異數分析,比較三種不同搬貨下車的差異。
研究結果顯示,L5/S1關節的作用力,在正面搬貨下車時,於anterior/posterior direction與vertical direction方向比背面搬貨下車大,且正面搬貨下車與背面搬貨下車大約是原地搬貨下車的1-3倍;在medial /lateral direction方向上,背面下車比正面下車大,且正面搬貨下車與背面搬貨下車大約是原地搬貨下車的7倍。L5/S1關節的力矩,背面搬貨下車的內收力矩與外旋力矩比正面搬貨下車大,且正面搬貨下車與背面搬貨下車大約是原地搬貨下車的12-15倍;在屈曲力矩上,則是正面搬貨下車比較大,而正面搬貨下車與背面搬貨下車,大約是原地搬貨下車的2-3倍。
本研究結論如下:在正面下車與背面下車在關節受力與關節力矩方面,都比原地搬貨下車大,最大的甚至有15倍之多,顯示正面搬貨下車與背面搬貨下車,相對於原地搬貨下車,發生傷害的風險較高。

Because of the specific characteristics of the activity, manual material handling(MMH)causes high pressure in L5/S1. It results in low back pain(LBP). It is a common activity to lower the goods from a mini van and the workers often get LBP. It is necessary to analyze the lowering activity and to understand more about the activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference among joint angle, joint force and joint moment in different lowering tasks.
In this study, fifteen subjects were recruited. The parameters of kinetics, kinematics, and EMG data were collected in the laboratory where motion analysis system, force platform, and EMG system were executed. There are three kinds of lowering activities which were forward lowering、backward lowering and standing lowering. A 3D dynamic biomechanical model was developed and applied to evaluate joint forces and joint moments of L5/S1 and lower limbs during lowering tasks. One-Way ANOVA was used to compare the differences among these three kinds of lowering tasks.
The results of the study showed that forward lowering produced higher peak forces of anterior/posterior direction and vertical direction than backward lowering on L5/S1. The forces of forward lowering and backward lowering were 1-3 times higher than standing lowering; backward lowering produced the higher peak force of medial/lateral direction than forward lowering on L5/S1. The forces of forward lowering and backward lowering were 7 times higher than standing lowering; backward lowering produced the higher peak moments of adduction moment and external moment than forward lowering on L5/S1. The moments of forward lowering and backward lowering were 12-15 times higher than standing lowering; forward lowering produced the higher peak moment of flexion moment than backward lowering on L5/S1. The moments of forward lowering and backward lowering were 2-3 times higher than standing lowering.
To sum up, the peak forces and the peak moments of forward lowering and backward lowering were higher than standing lowering. It showed that forward lowering and backward lowering would produce higher injury risk than standing lowering.

目 錄

第一章 緒論

第一節 前言----------------------------------- 1
第二節 研究動機與目的-------------------------- 3
第三節 研究範圍與限制-------------------------- 4
第四節 操作性定義------------------------------ 5

第二章 文獻回顧

第一節 腰椎結構---------------------------- 10
第二節 腰椎生物力學模式的發展---- ------------ 14
第三節 不同情況下L5/S1關節的受力-------------- 21
第四節 不同動作肌電訊號之研究----------------- 26

第三章 研究方法

第一節 研究架構------------------------------ 35
第二節 研究對象----------------------------- 37
第三節 實驗時間與地點------------------------ 37
第四節 實驗儀器------------------------------ 38
第五節 場地佈置------------------------------ 39
第六節 人體模型建立---------------------- 40
第七節 實驗步驟與流程------------------------- 48
第八節 資料收集與處理------------------------- 54
第九節 統計分析------------------------------ 63

第四章 結果與討論

第一節 三種不同搬貨下車方式下肢關節角度變化------- 64
第二節 三種不同搬貨下車方式L5/S1及下肢關節力量變化---- 104
第三節 三種不同搬貨下車方式L5/S1與下肢六個關節力矩變化--- 149
第四節 正面搬貨下車與背面搬貨下車在預備動作的L5/S1關節力矩比較---------------------------- 200

第五章 結論與建議

第一節 結論------------------------ 212
第二節 建議------------------------------- 215

參考文獻------------------------------------- 216

附錄

附錄一 關節角度單因子變異數分析摘要表---------- 225
附錄二 關節受力單因子變異數分析摘要表---------- 228
附錄三 關節力量事後比較表--------------------- 231
附錄四 關節力矩單因子變異數分析摘要表---------- 237
附錄五 關節力矩事後比較表---------------------- 240
附錄六 反光標記安置位置----------------------- 246
附錄七 受試者同意書----------------------- 248

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