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研究生:高豫麒
研究生(外文):Kao, Yu-Chi
論文名稱:測高與重力衛星資料應用於重力與水文變化
論文名稱(外文):Gravity and hydrological changes from satellite altimetry and satellite gravimetry
指導教授:黃金維黃金維引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwang, Chein-Way
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:衛星測高全球海水面高度變化率等效水位高聖嬰地球扁率
外文關鍵詞:Satellite AltimetryGRACEGlobal sea level trendEquivalent Water HeightEl NiñoJ2
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本文的主要研究課題為(1)使用衛星測高(Satellite Altimetry,SA)與熱容(steric)兩種資料計算海水面高度及質量之時變量,並探討海水質量變化對地球質心、扁率及極運動之影響量。(2)使用SA與GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment)重力衛星資料研究監測湖泊水位高度變化之可行性。本文以1992年10月至2007年12月間的SA與steric資料,獲得以下研究結果:(1)海水面高度異常(Sea Leavel Anamaly,SLA)、steric與改正後海水面高度異常(Corrected SLA,CSLA)之全球海水面高度年變率(Global Sea Level Trend,GSLT)結果,分別為2.94±0.18 mm/yr、0.32±0.28 mm/yr及2.47±0.14 mm/yr;(2)在多個海域中CSLA的海水面高度年變率與SLA及steric的結果相反,顯示此些海域受到steric的效應影響極大;(3)由CSLA反演計算的 係數年變率為1.16±0.07×10-10,振幅為5.13×10-10,相位為- 81.2°;(4) 、 與 地球質心偏移量年變率分別為-0.105±0.015 mm/yr、0.011±0.019 mm/yr及-0.234±0.015 mm/yr ;(5) J2年變率為 0.57±0.08×10-11/yr,振幅為1.98×10-11/yr,相位為 -127.21°;(6) 的變化量約為 係數的3倍,即極移運動中x方向變動量大於y方向約3倍。
本文使用SA測算的湖水位、每月的GRACE重力觀測量與美國氣候預測中心(Climate Prediction Center,CPC)水文模式的等效水位高度(Equivalent Water Height,EWH)變化量等資料,推估Baikal與Balkhash湖集水域內,流入這兩個湖泊的水量,分別為 60% 和30%。在相位變化方面, Baikal湖區GRACE結果與SA及CPC模式相差約7個月,此結果差異主要影響因素為湖泊座落位置的氣候環境與人為干擾量。本文中比較Baikal與Balkhash湖各兩個不同時間段的月均溫,其結果均顯示後時間段的月均溫均較前時間高,分別高約0.64 °C與0.7 °C ,其中Baikal湖的年均溫由零度以下,上升至零度以上,此結果將造成原永凍土的解融,增加注入Baikal湖的水量。對照兩湖區年均溫及地球扁率J2係數的變化趨勢,兩者均在1997-1998 El Niño事件發生後變化轉折。

The main research topics of this study are : (1) to determine changes of sea surface heights and oceanic mass using satellite altimetry (SA) and steric heights, and to determine the contributions of such changes to variations of geocenter, J2, and polar motions. (2) to determine lake level changes using SA and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravimetry data. Using SA and steric heights over October 1992 to December 2007, the following results are obtained : (1) the rates of sea level anomaly (SLA), steric height anomaly and corrected SLA (CSLA) are 2.94 ± 0.18, 0.32 ± 0.28 mm/yr and 2.47 ± 0.14 mm/yr. (2) The trends of CSLA, SLA and steric heights are conflicting over some oceanic areas, suggesting that large uncertainties of the underlying data may exist here. (3) The rate, annual amplitude and phase of , which is the oceanic mass-induced variation of the zero-degree geopotential coefficient, are 1.16 ± 0.07 × 10-10, 5.1 3 × 10-10 and -81.2º. (4) The rates of the geocenter variations in x, y, and z are -0.105 ± 0.015, 0.011 ± 0.019 and -0.234 ± 0.015 mm/yr. (5) The rate and annual amplitude and phase of J2 are 0.57 ± 0.08 × 10-11/yr, 1.98 × 10-11/yr and -127.21∘. (6) The magnitude of is 3 times greater than that of , suggesting that the oceanic mass contributes more to the x component of the polar motion than the y component.
Using the variations of lake level from SA and the equivalent water heights (EWH) from the monthly GRACE gravity fields and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) hydrological model, it is estimated that about 60% and 30% of water in the catchment areas of Lakes Baikal and Balkhash enter these two lakes. The phase of the annual variation of the Baikal lake level from GRACE differ by 7 months from the phases obtained with satellite altimetry and the CPC model. This difference is due to a climate factor and some man-made causes. Monthly temperature data over two time periods around Lakes Baikal and Balkhash show that the mean temperature in the earlier period is larger than that in the later period. On average, temperatures over Baikal and Balkhash increase by 0.64° and 0.7°C. Over these two periods the mean temperature around Baikal changes from sub-zero to above-zero, suggesting that the permafrost here may thaw to increase the amount of water entering Baikal. A common feature in the trends of J2 and the lake levels of Baikal and Balkhash is that the trend before the 1997-1998 El Niño is reversed after this event.

中文摘要……………………………………………………..…………Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………..………Ⅱ
誌謝…………………………………………………..………..………Ⅳ
目錄……………………………………………………………………………… V
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………...…Ⅷ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………….. Ⅸ

第1章 緒論………………………………………………………….…1
第1-1節 研究緣起………………………………………….….…1
第1-2節 研究方向及流程…………………………………..……3
第1-3節 各章節概述…………………………………………..…6

第2章 球諧函數係數的解析與整合………………………………..…7
第2-1節 章節緒論…………………………………………………7
第2-2節 完全正規諧函數係數與普通諧函數係數之關係式..…..7
第2-3 節 水文高度及大氣壓力異常值重力位係數計算式推導……9
第2-4節 FFT計算技巧於球諧係數解析之應用…………..……11
第2-5節 FFT計算技巧於球諧係數整合之應用……………..…14
第2-6節 Wavelet 轉換計算分析與應用………………………..15
第2-7節 本章小結……………………………………………..…19

第3章 資料來源與處理………………………………………….……20
第3-1節 章節緒論…………………………….……………….…20
第3-2節 AVISO衛星測高資料……….……..…………………20
第3-3節 steric熱容效應資料……………….…………….……24
第3-4節 GRACE資料………….……….………… …….……26
第3-5節 CPC-LDAS水文模式資料…………………….….…29
第3-6節 本章小結……………………………..………….….…30

第4章 衛星測高資料成果分析……………………..…………….………32
第4-1節 章節緒論………………………………………….……32
第4-2節 海水面高度變化相關時變量之成果探討………..……33
第4-3節 海水面高度異常值與El Niño之關係………………44
第4-4節 海水質量時變量對低階重力係數之影響……….……49
第4-4-1節 海水質量時變量:C00係數………………...………49
第4-4-2節 地球質心坐標變率:C10、C11、S11係數…..……52
第4-4-3節 J2係數的變化 …….……………….………..……58
第4-4-4節 極運動:C21及S21係數…………………….……62
第4-5節 本章小節……………………………………….………66

第5章 測高及重力衛星分析水文變化………………………….……69
第5-1節 章節緒論………………………………………..…………69
第5-2節 湖泊簡介………………………………………………..…70
第5-3節 衛星測高資料應用於湖水位高度變化監測之研究分析…73
第5-4節 GRACE測算湖水位高度之理論與方法…………………77
第5-5節 GRACE湖水位高度變化結果分析探討………………...85
第5-6節J2地球扁率變化與湖水位高度變化之關連性探討…….89
第5-7節 本章小結……….………………………...………………..91

第6章 結論與建議…………………………………….…………….93

參考文獻……………………………………………………..………..98

附錄A : 球諧係數解析程式sha.f90簡介與應用……………………111
附錄B : 球諧係數整合程式syn.f90簡介與應用………………...…115
附錄C : MATLAB wavelet Morlet 頻譜分析流程…………………119
附錄D : 本文所使用資料下載網址………………………………..…121
附錄E : 英文縮寫對照…………………….……………………..…122
作者簡歷……………………………………………………………..…124
學術著作目錄………………………………………………………..…125

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