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研究生:鄭一亭
研究生(外文):Yi-Ting Cheng
論文名稱:探討家長參與科學學習成長團體對科學學習及參與子女科學學習之影響
論文名稱(外文):Investigating parents’ views about science learning and involvement in their children’s science learning through a parental science learning group
指導教授:張惠博張惠博引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huey-Por Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:科學教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:253
中文關鍵詞:非制式科學學習家長參與家長成長團體
外文關鍵詞:informal science learningparents involvementparental professional development
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科學學習是無所不在的,換言之,學習是在日常生活中,且是隨時隨地發生的。除了學校生活之外,家庭亦是學生另一個生活重心,不管是身心或學習,家庭對學生的學習而言,皆扮演著重要的角色。所以,本研究旨在探討家長參與家長科學學習成長團體的過程中,父母對於科學學習及家庭參與子女科學學習的想法,以及參與科學學習成長團體後,對父母本身學習科學及參與子女科學學習的影響。本研究於九十七年九月至九十九年三月,成立家長科學學習成長團體,提供父母閱讀相關文章、學習科學活動,並與同儕、專家、大學教授和研究生等對話的機會。研究者並以參與觀察的方式,經由研習以及晤談、會議錄影、家庭活動錄影、問卷及家長所撰寫的相關文件資料等資料,應用詮釋學的研究方法,探討參與學習的家長對於家庭參與、科學學習的想法,並設計相關課程協助家長協助子女學習科學,真切瞭解個案家長對於家庭參與子女科學學習的想法、實務的轉變及其成長。研究發現家長經由父母專業成長模式的學習,普遍對於科學學習及家長參與意涵的理解,有明顯的進步。在家庭的科學活動方面,二位個案家長亦能展現出有別於參與之初以父母為主導的互動模式,且能以孩子為主體並重視與孩子合作的過程。此外,基於參與家長的想法及實務參與,本研究建構出一個成功的父母參與子女學習的轉變歷程模式,希冀能真正瞭解家長參與子女的科學學習,以落實並連結家庭教育與非制式的科學學習。同時,本研究亦探討參與的家長對於專業成長的感受與回饋,發現家長科學學習成長團體確能提供家長支持與協助,並經由對話、討論、合作及實施家庭參與的歷程中,獲得專業成長,促進父母對於科學學習的興趣與認識,對於其子女的影響,亟須進一步的研究,以獲得更具有說服力的證據。
Recent years have seen increased attention being given to informal science education. Science learning should be omnipresent in the mundane lives of the students. Besides
from the campus lives, family also plays an important role in the students’ lives, whether mentally or physically. The purpose of this study was to explore parents’ views about involvement in their children’s’ education and in what ways they are so involved, and also to assist parents to understand and implement science learning at home through a parental science learning project. Two parental science learning groups, targeting the family member (usually a parent) most involved with the child’s education were set in two elementary schools. Forty three volunteer parents took part in this study. Fortnightly group meetings of 2 hours’ duration were arranged from October 2008 to March 2010. Based on parents’ needs, a PI (Parent Involvement) Model was developed for parents to share, discuss and reflect on their views about involvement in their children’s science learning. Afterwards, two parents and their children were videotaped engaging with science activities to investigate their interaction at home. Data were collected primarily by means of taking field-notes, questionnaires, videotaping meetings, interviews and artifacts. Hermeneutics was adopted as a methodology to describe parents’ changes in the perspectives and practices about science learning and involvement in their children’s science learning. The results revealed a number of factors affecting a parent’s decision to participate in their children’s learning. The types of participation that motivated parents’ choice
were discussed. The factors and outcomes in the parental participation decision were also presented. It was also found that parents appreciated the importance of science
learning and understood the importance of family involvement in children’s science learning. Moreover, parents considered and overcame some restrictions when they implemented science activities with children at home. An Intervention and Change
Model of Parental Involvement (ICMPI) which fit our parents was emerged form these parents involvement practices. Furthermore, the findings could reflect the characteristics of the effective parental professional development project. Meanwhile, in the context of parental science learning group, parents gained the supports and facilitations form other parents and university researchers.
中文摘要I
英文摘要III
章節目錄V
圖次目錄VIII
表次目錄X
附錄ⅩI
章節目錄
第一章 緒論1
第一節 研究背景與重要性1
一、研究背景1
二、研究的重要性3
第二節 研究目的與待答問題4
第三節 研究範圍與限制5
一、研究範圍5
二、研究限制5
第四節 名詞釋義6
一、非制式科學學習6
二、家庭參與與科學學習6
三、對科學學習的想法6
四、家長科學學習成長團體7
第二章 文獻探討9
第一節 由建構主義及生態系統理論來看非制式的科學教育9
一、建構主義9
二、生態系統理論10
第二節 我國當前與非制式科學學習的相關政策與研究12
一、我國與非制式科學教育有關的政策或制度12
二、我國非制式教育的所探討的相關面向14
第三節 家庭參與22
一、家庭參與的演進22
二、家庭參與的重要性26
三、家庭參與的阻礙32
四、家庭參與科學學習的方法33
第四節 家庭參與的理論架構36
一、父母參與的類型36
二、家庭參與的理論架構39
第五節 家庭參與科學學習的相關研究41
一、家庭參與的計畫或介入對學生學習成果的影響44
二、分析家庭參與的相關研究54
三、我國與家庭參與的相關之研究59
第三章 研究方法67
第一節、研究架構67
第二節、研究情境與流程69
一、研究情境69
二、研究流程70
第三節、研究對象73
一、參與家長科學成長團體之成員73
二、探討親子互動之個案74
第四節、研究工具76
一、父母參與量表76
二、家庭參與觀點問卷78
三、家庭參與觀察表78
四、親子互動紀錄單80
第五節、資料收集與分析80
一、資料收集80
二、資料分析82
第四章 研究結果85
第一節、家長參與科學學習成長團體的轉變85
第二節、探討我國父母參與子女科學學習的模式93
一、決定93
二、選擇97
三、參與105
四、結果111
第三節、個案家長參與家長科學學習成長團體的轉變120
一、個案家長先前的參與實務及對科學學習的觀點120
二、個案家長與孩子科學互動的轉變情形131
三、個案家長參與後對參與實務及對科學學習的觀點176
第四節、對於家長參與科學學習成長團體的感受196
一、從文獻閱讀、專家演講更瞭解父母的角色以及參與科學學習的重要
197
二、透過家庭參與實例的分享與討論,引發更深入的探討................198
三、參與的收穫想要和更多人分享,因此,也將科學學習帶入班級及家
庭聚會活動199
四、感受合作學習的重要,自組親子科學學習團體202
五、撰寫親子科學作業,促進省思、精進自我表達能力205
摘要 VII
六、擴大生活視野,改變人生規畫208
七、對家長參與子女科學學習可能有的疑惑209
第五章 討論與結論211
第一節、討論211
一、家長參與科學學習成長團體的轉變211
二、我國家長參與子女科學學習模式及影響因素212
三、個案家長參與科學學習成長團體的轉變及影響217
四、家長參與與子女科學學習模式後的感受219
第二節、結論220
一、父母參與子女的科學學習220
二、父母與子女在家庭中的科學互動222
三、有效的家庭專業成長225
參考書目231
圖次目錄
圖 2- 1- 1 Bronfenbrenner 環境的生態模式11
圖 2- 2- 1 非制式科學教育的實施範圍及面向15
圖 2- 3- 1 父母參與的舊模式24
圖 2- 3- 2 父母參與的新模式24
圖 2- 3- 3 學習發生的地點與時間26
圖 2- 3- 4 學校、社區及家庭對不同年齡的影響27
圖 2- 3- 5 父母與教師對孩子的認知交會28
圖 3- 1- 1 ICMPI 本研究之研究架構68
圖 3- 2- 1 研究流程示意圖72
圖 3- 4- 1 親子互動情形表徵圖79
圖 4- 2- 1 我國家庭參與子女科學學習模式及影響因素119
圖 4- 3- 1 小花媽媽在參與之初的參與實務及對科學學習的觀點120
圖 4- 3- 2 阿真媽媽在參與之初的參與實務及對科學學習的觀點121
圖 4- 3- 3 小花媽媽親子互動情形表徵圖(一)-水中紙花135
圖 4- 3- 4 小花媽媽親子互動情形表徵圖(二)-燈泡亮了141
圖 4- 3- 5 小花媽媽畫下大女兒自己思考的連接法142
圖 4- 3- 6 小花媽媽分享女兒的科學遊戲創作142
圖 4- 3- 7 大女兒在操作紙圈圈飛機的過程中解釋她的想法147
圖 4- 3- 8 小兒子在看姐姐及小花媽媽的操作示範148
圖 4- 3- 9 姐姐及弟弟最後所設計的紙圈圈飛機圖148
圖 4- 3- 10 小花媽媽親子互動情形表徵圖(三)-紙圈圈飛機149
圖 4- 3- 11 三次的家庭參與情形結果比較圖151
圖 4- 3- 12 阿真媽媽兒子操作「紙花入水」活動的照片156
圖 4- 3- 13 阿真媽媽親子互動情形表徵圖(一)-紙花入水157
圖 4- 3- 14 阿真媽媽親子互動情形表徵圖(二)-吉他盒163
圖 4- 3- 15 吉他盒活動照片164
圖 4- 3- 16 阿真媽媽與孩子科學活動紀錄-聲波傳遞164
圖 4- 3- 17 阿真媽媽與孩子科學活動紀錄-傳聲筒165
圖 4- 3- 18 阿真媽媽與孩子科學活動紀錄-養樂多瓶165
圖 4- 3- 19 小兒子繪製說明書的過程168
圖 4- 3- 20 小兒子所繪製繪製的說明書168
圖 4- 3- 21 阿真媽媽與孩子共同操作的過程170
圖 4- 3- 22 阿真媽媽與孩子改良後的設計圖170
圖 4- 3- 23 阿真媽媽與孩子的作品172
圖 4- 3- 24 阿真媽媽兒子下次作品的設計圖172
圖 4- 3- 25 阿真媽媽親子互動情形表徵圖(三)-電的創作品174
圖 4- 3- 26 小花媽媽三次家庭參與情形結果比較圖176
圖 4- 3- 27 小花媽媽在參與後對參與實務及對科學學習的觀點177
圖 4- 3- 28 阿真媽媽在參與後對參與實務及對科學學習的觀點互動主體
177
圖 4- 4- 1 家長與孩子拍攝的蝴蝶照片及家長自製的投影片200
圖 4- 4- 2 家長到班級中帶領孩子進行靜電水母的活動照片201
圖 4- 4- 3 家長到班級中帶領孩子進行簡易滑翔機活動201
圖 4- 4- 4 家長假日家族聚會的家庭科學活動照片202
圖 4- 4- 5 家長自組的親子科學團體中親子進行溫度與熱的活動204
圖 4- 4- 6 家長自組的親子科學團體中親子進行酸鹼主題活動204
圖 4- 4- 7 第一學期親子活動報告207
圖 4- 4- 8 不同家長參與成長團體一段時間後的親子活動報告207

表次目錄
表 2- 3- 1 美國家庭、社區及學校在教育責任上關係的演進24
表 2- 4- 1 Epstein 六種家庭參與的類型38
表 3- 2- 1 參與家長科學學習成長團體人數一覽表70
表 3- 3- 1 參與父母科學學習成長團體背景一覽表74
表 3- 4- 1 父母參與量表之雙向細目表77
表 3- 5- 1 資料來源與待答問題對照表82
表 3- 5- 2 研究資料的編碼說明及範例表84
表 4- 1- 1 「父母參與量表」前、後測成對樣本的統計量表86
表 4- 1- 2 前、後測「學校中的參與」之成對樣本t 檢定87
表 4- 1- 3 前、後測「家庭中的參與」之成對樣本t 檢定88
表 4- 1- 4 前、後測「對孩子科學學習的參與」之成對樣本t 檢定89
表 4- 1- 5 前、後測「對學習科學的想法」之成對樣本t 檢定90
表 4- 1- 6 前、後測「父母參與總量表」之成對樣本t 檢定91
表 4- 3- 1 個案家長參與科學學習成長團體之前對科學學習認知的比較..
125
表 4- 3- 2 個案家長參與科學學習成長團體之前對科學學習態度的比較..
127
表 4- 3- 3 個案家長參與科學學習成長團體之前對科學學習作為的比較..
131
表 4- 3- 4 個案家長參與科學學習成長團體之後對科學學習認知的比較..
182
表 4- 3- 5 個案家長參與科學學習成長團體之後對科學學習態度的比較..
188
表 4- 3- 6 個案家長參與科學學習成長團體之後對科學學習作為的比較
194
附錄
附錄一 父母參與量表243
附錄二 家庭參與觀點問卷247
附錄三 家庭參與情形觀察表249
附錄四 家庭參與情形觀察表之分類依據表251
附錄五 親子互動紀錄單253
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