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研究生:林佩欣
論文名稱:國民中學學習障礙學生家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應關係之研究
指導教授:周台傑
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:223
中文關鍵詞:依附社會適應社會訊息處理學習障礙學生
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本研究旨在瞭解國中學習障礙學生與普通學生以及不同背景變項之國中學習障礙學生在家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應上的差異,並探討以及比較國中學習障礙學生與普通學生之家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應的關係。
本研究採問卷調查與深度訪談蒐集資料,研究對象是364名國中學障學生與364名普通學生,並自問卷調查樣本中抽取學障學生、學障學生之家長和相關教師共16人為訪談對象,以t考驗、單因子變異數分析、階層迴歸分析與結構方程模式進行問卷調查的資料分析;以恆常比較分析法以及次數與百分比進行深度訪談的資料分析。研究主要發現如下:
一、國中學習障礙學生與普通學生在整體與各層面的家庭依附、整體的社會訊息處理與反應決定歷程以及整體的社會適應、人際問題與違犯行為達顯著差異。
二、不同背景變項中,性別在家庭依附的拒絕層面、社會訊息處理之反應決定層面、整體的社會適應以及攻擊行為與違犯行為層面達顯著差異。不同學障類型在社會適應之違犯行為層面達顯著差異。
三、國中學習障礙學生的家庭依附對社會訊息處理有顯著預測力。家庭依附對人際問題有顯著預測力。社會訊息處理與家庭依附以及背景變項中之性別和語文型學障對攻擊行為與違犯行為具顯著預測力。
四、國中學習障礙學生與普通學生的家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應之結構模式獲統計支持,社會訊息處理在家庭依附與社會適應間具部分中介效果。學障學生與普通學生的結構模式型態,以及各變項間的關連方向與強度均無顯著差異。
五、社會適應良好之學障學生的家庭依附是:「家中寶貝,悉心呵護」與「重視溝通,循循善誘」。社會適應不良之學障學生的家庭依附是:「壓力沉重,動輒打罵」、「自顧不暇,自生自滅」以及「差別待遇,冷漠疏離」。社會適應不良之學障學生的社會訊息處理效能較社會適應良好者差,在社會訊息處理之線索編碼、線索解釋、目標設定、反應建立與反應決定等歷程皆有缺陷。
本研究根據問卷調查與深度訪談結果,提出對教學輔導與後續研究之建議。

The first purpose of this study was to investigate the family attachment, social
information processing, and social adjustment of students with learning disabilities
and normal students, and those of learning disabled students with different
background variables. The second purpose was to explore the relationships among
family attachment, social information processing, and social adjustment of students
with learning disabilities and normal students.
A questionnaire survey was used in the study which recruited 364 students with
learning disabilities and 364 normal students in junior high schools. A in-depth
interview was conducted to 16 participants including students with learning
disabilities, school teachers and parents of the students. The data of questionnaire
survey were analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, hierarchical regression analysis,
and structural equation model. The interview manuscripts were coded and compiled
with constant comparison, frequency distribution, and percentage. The results of the
study were described as the followings:
1. There were significant differences in full scale and all the subscales of the
family attachment, full scale and response decision subscale of the social information
processing, full scale and interpersonal problem and delinquent behavior subscales of
the social adjustment between students with learning disabilities and normal students.
2. There were significant differences in the rejection subscale of the family
attachment, the response decision subscale of the social information processing, full
scale and aggression and delinquent behavior subscales of the social adjustment
between learning disabled students with different genders. There was a significant
difference in the delinquent behavior subscale of the social adjustment among
learning disabled students with different classification of disabilities.
3. The family attachment of the learning disabled students significantly predicted
social information processing. The family attachment of the learning disabled students
significantly predicted interpersonal problem. The social information processing and
family attachment of the learning disabled students significantly predicted aggression
and delinquent behaviors. Among background variables, gender and verbal learning
disabilities significantly predicted aggression and delinquent behaviors.
4. The structure model of the family attachment, social information processing,
and social adjustment of students with learning disabilities and normal students can be
pronounced idealistic. Social information processing partially mediated the
relationship between family attachment and social adjustment. The structure model of
students with learning disabilities and normal students didn’t differ significantly.
5. In the family of the well-adjusted learning disabled students, the children were
taken care with love and affection and the communication between parents and
children was emphasized. In the family of the poorly-adjusted learning disabled
students, the children were treated with harsh parenting, rejection and alienation.
Compared to the well-adjusted learning disabled students, the social information
processing of the poorly-adjusted learning disabled students was less efficient, and the
poorly-adjusted learning disabled students had more difficulties during the process of
encoding of cues, interpretation of cues, clarification of goals, response construction,
and response decision.
Based on the results from the questionnaire survey and in-depth interview, some
suggestions for intervention and future studies were proposed.
摘要 I
目次 V
表次 VII
圖次 IX
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 問題背景與研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 5
第三節 名詞釋義 7
第二章 文獻探討 11
第一節 依附的理論與相關研究 11
第二節 社會訊息處理的理論與相關研究 28
第三節 社會適應的理論與相關研究 45
第四節 家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應的關係 60
第三章 研究方法 75
第一節 研究架構 75
第二節 研究對象 77
第三節 研究工具 80
第四節 實施程序 96
第五節 資料分析 97
第六節 資料篩檢 101
第四章 研究結果與討論 107
第一節 國中學習障礙學生與普通學生的家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應的差異分析 107
第二節 不同背景變項之國中學習障礙學生的家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應的差異分析 111
第三節 國中學習障礙學生之家庭依附對社會訊息處理、社會訊息處理對社會適應以及家庭依附對社會適應的預測力 121
第四節 國中學習障礙學生與普通學生的家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應之結構模式 131
第五節 社會適應良好與社會適應不良之國中學習障礙學生在家庭依附與社會訊息處理上的差異情形 143
第六節 綜合討論 155
第五章 結論與建議 161
第一節 結論 161
第二節 研究限制 163
第三節 研究建議 164


表次
表2-1 學障學生與普通學生社會訊息處理歷程的差異.....................................................................41
表2-2 國外探討學障學生適應的研究所採用的指標.........................................................................49
表2-3 國內探討學障學生適應的研究所採用的指標.........................................................................50
表3-1 預試樣本有效問卷數.................................................................................................................77
表3-2 正式學障樣本背景資料摘要表.................................................................................................78
表3-3 正式學障與普通兩組樣本在性別、年級與家庭社經地位之各水準人次與百分比摘要表..79
表3-4 深度訪談對象之背景資料摘要表.............................................................................................80
表3-5「家庭依附問卷」預試因素分析結果摘要表..........................................................................83
表3-6「社會訊息處理歷程量表」預試之情境故事內容與題項代號..............................................85
表3-7「社會訊息處理歷程量表」預試題項與向度說明..................................................................86
表3-8「社會訊息處理歷程量表」預試之反應決定歷程的因素分析結果摘要表...........................87
表3-9「社會訊息處理歷程量表」預試之整體模式適合度指標數值摘要表..................................88
表3-10「社會訊息處理歷程量表」預試之測量模式適合度指標數值摘要表................................88
表3-11「社會訊息處理歷程量表」預試之模式適合度與模式間比較結果摘要表.........................89
表3-12「社會適應量表」預試因素分析結果摘要表........................................................................93
表3-13 職業等級與教育程度劃分方式表...........................................................................................94
表3-14 社經地位等級換算方法...........................................................................................................94
表3-15 深度訪談對象之逐字稿代碼對照表.......................................................................................98
表4-1 學障學生與普通學生在「家庭依附」、「社會訊息處理歷程」與「社會適應」量表得分之t
考驗摘要表...............................................................................................................................108
表4-2 不同性別之學障學生在「家庭依附」、「社會訊息處理歷程」與「社會適應」量表得分之t
考驗摘要表...............................................................................................................................112
表4-3 不同年級之學障學生在「家庭依附」、「社會訊息處理歷程」與「社會適應」量表得分之變
異數分析摘要表........................................................................................................................113
表4-4 不同社經地位之學障學生在「家庭依附」、「社會訊息處理歷程」與「社會適應」量表得分
之變異數分析摘要表.................................................................................................................114
表4-5 不同類型之學障學生在「社會訊息處理歷程」與「社會適應」量表得分之變異數分析摘要
表...............................................................................................................................................116
表4-6 不同居住狀況之學障學生在「家庭依附」量表得分之變異數分析摘要表........................117
表4-7 不同依附對象之學障學生在「家庭依附」量表得分之變異數分析摘要表........................118
表4-8 家庭依附對社會訊息處理之階層迴歸分析摘要表...............................................................123
表4-9 社會訊息處理與家庭依附對人際問題之階層迴歸分析摘要表...........................................124
表4-10 社會訊息處理與家庭依附對攻擊行為之階層迴歸分析摘要表.........................................126
表4-11 社會訊息處與家庭依附理對違犯行為之階層迴歸分析摘要表..........................................128
表4-12 本研究假設模式之潛在變項對觀察變項參數估計結果摘要表.........................................134
VIII
表4-13 本研究假設模式之潛在變項與觀察變項之誤差變異數估計結果摘要表..........................135
表4-14 本研究假設模式之整體模式適合度評鑑結果摘要表.........................................................136
表4-15 各潛在變項間的區辨效度分析結果摘要表.........................................................................136
表4-16 本研究假設模式之潛在變項與潛在變項間參數估計結果摘要表.....................................137
表4-17 結構模式不變性考驗結果摘要表.........................................................................................141
表4-18 高、低兩組學障學生社會訊息處理歷程訪談結果次數與百分比摘要表..........................150
表4-19 高、低兩組學障學生在家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應之差異情形一覽表..........152
IX
圖次
圖2-1 內在運作模式的認知、情緒與行為反應模式圖.....................................................................13
圖2-2Bartholomew 和Horowitz 的依附類型......................................................................................17
圖2-3 社會訊息處理模式圖.................................................................................................................30
圖3-1 本研究架構圖.............................................................................................................................76
圖3-2 國中學習障礙學生家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應之結構模式圖..............................76
圖3-3「社會訊息處理歷程量表」驗證性因素分析模式圖(模式A)(標準化解)...................90
圖4-1 國中學習障礙學生與普通學生家庭依附、社會訊息處理與社會適應之結構模式圖........140

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