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研究生:許文宗
研究生(外文):Wen-Tsung Hsu
論文名稱:國中學生虛擬霸凌與傳統霸凌之相關研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Junior High School Students' Virtual Bullying and Traditional Bullying
指導教授:王智弘王智弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Hung Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:232
中文關鍵詞:傳統霸凌虛擬霸凌五大人格特質
外文關鍵詞:traditional bullyingvirtual bullyingpersonality traits
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本研究旨在了解國中學生傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌之現況,採用問卷調查法,以臺灣中部地區彰化縣、台中縣、台中巿、南投縣之公立國中19所學校,1008名學生作為研究對象。以「五大人格特質量表」、「傳統霸凌量表」以及「虛擬霸凌量表」作為研究工具,以描述統計、多變量分析、皮爾森積差相關分析、迴歸分析等統計方法分析資料。
本研究之主要發現如下:
一、 傳統霸凌的加害者、受害者及旁觀者三種角色男生的傾向顯著高於女生,高年級的學生大於中、低年級的學生。學業成就所造成的差異會因為不同的霸凌種類而不同,直接霸凌加害者部分前三分之一的學生傾向較低,傳統霸凌加害者以中間三分之一傾向的學生較高。
二、 虛擬霸凌的加害者、受害者及旁觀者三種角色主要傾向為女生高於男生,高年級大於中、低年級。學業成就只在網路罷網路霸凌受害者部分造成差異,並且以中間三分之一的傾向較高。
三、 父母國籍、主要照顧者以及家庭社經地位對於傳統霸凌及虛擬霸凌的部分角色的差異性影響有交互作用存在。整體看來,單親特別是只有父親照顧且為外籍配偶子女的低社經地位家庭的子女傾向較高。
四、 傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌各種不同角色間,大部分的角色都呈現出顯著的相關。
五、 受害者的人格特質和謹慎性、神經質以及開放性有關。謹慎性越強的越不容易是受害者,神經質和開放性傾向越高的,越有可能是受害者。但是虛擬霸凌受害者的人格特質只和神經質相關。
六、 加害者的人格特質和謹慎性、神經質、外向性以及開放性有關。謹慎性越強的國中學生,越不容易是加害者,而外向性、神經質和開放性傾向越高的學生,越有可能是加害者。
本研究最後根據研究結果提出各項建議,以供教育單位、家長、學生及未來研究者之參考。

This study explored the status quo of traditional bullying and virtual bullying among junior high school students. Based on Big Five Personality Trait Scale, Traditional Bullying Scale and Virtual Bullying Scale, the questionnaires were distributed to public junior high schools in central Taiwan ( 1,008 subjects ). And the results of this study are listed as the following statement.

1. For the part of traditional bullying in junior high school, boys and ninth graders are more likely to become perpetrators, victims and bystanders than girls and seventh graders as well as eighth graders. Furthermore, the differences of academic achievements are varied by bullying types; high academic achievers are less likely to commit traditional bullies while medium academic achievers are more likely to receive traditional bullies.
2. Girls and ninth graders are more likely to become perpetrators, victims and bystanders than boys and seventh graders and eighth graders in virtual bullying; furthermore, medium academic achievers are more likely to received virtual bullying..
3. There are interaction effects among parental nationalities, primary care givers, socioeconomic backgrounds and roles in traditional bullying and virtual bullying. Students in single-parent family, with low socioeconomic, and having foreign parents are more likely to become bullies.
4. There is a strong relationship among most roles in traditional bullying and virtual bullying.
5. Victims’ tends to have personality traits of conscientiousness , neuroticism and openness. Students with high conscientiousness are less likely to become victims; however, students with more neuroticism and openness are more likely to become victims. In addition, personalities of victims in virtual bullying only related to the openness.
6. Perpetrators’ tends to have personality traits of conscientiousness , neuroticism extraversion, and openness. Junior high school students with high conscientiousness are less likely to be perpetrators; however, students with more extroversion, neuroticism and openness are more likely to become perpetrators.
According to the results, suggestions are proposed as the reference for the government, parents, students and researchers in the future.

中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
目次 III
表次 V
圖次 XI

第一章 緒論1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 6
第三節 名詞解釋 7
第四節 研究範圍與研究限制 8
第二章 文獻探討 9
第一節 傳統霸凌行為之探討 9
第二節 虛擬霸凌行為之探討 15
第三節 傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌之相關研究及比較 43
第三章 研究方法 51
第一節 研究架構 51
第二節 研究假設 52
第三節 研究對象與取樣方法 53
第四節 研究工具 56
第五節 預試問卷之分析與題目之篩選 62
第六節 資料處理與統計分析 93

第四章 研究結果 97
第一節 基本資料、傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌的現況分析 97
第二節 性別、年級及學業成就對於傳統霸凌及虛擬霸凌角色之差異性分析 118
第三節 父母國籍、主要照顧者及社經地位對於傳統霸凌及虛擬霸凌角色之差異性分析 120
第四節 傳統霸凌及虛擬霸凌角色間之相關分析 135
第五節 五大人格特質對於傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌之預測 138
第五章 結論、討論與建議 155
第一節 結論 155
第二節 討論 165
第三節 建議 178
參考文獻 186
一、中文部分 186
二、英文部分 187
附錄
附錄一: John和 Srivastava(1999)之The Big Five Inventory (BFI) 198
附錄二:Li(2007a)霸凌量表 200
附錄三:Beran 和Li(2007)霸凌量表 201
附錄四:Raskauskas 和 Stoltz (2007) 霸凌量表 203
附錄五:專家效度問卷 206
附錄六:問卷審查專家學者名單﹙依姓氏筆劃排列﹚ 218
附錄七:預試問卷 219
附錄八:正式問卷 226

表 次
表2-1霸凌者-受害者循環相對百分比 ............ 33
表2-2以被害者為主比較霸凌發生的頻率 ....... 43
表2-3最近被霸凌的時間 .......... 44
表2-4最近霸凌他人的時間 ....... 44
表2-5學童認為可以有效制止傳統霸凌的方法 .......... 48
表2-6學童認為可以有效制止虛擬霸凌的方法 ............. 48
表3-1預試樣本人數統計表 ........ 54
表3-2取樣人數統計表 .......... 54
表3-3正式樣本人數統計表 ......... 55
表3-4五大人格特質量表預試題目向度分佈 .......... 56
表3-5 BFI量表之信度與收斂效度 ...... 57
表3-6傳統霸凌量表預試題項分佈 ................. 59
表3-7虛擬霸凌量表預試題項分佈 ................... 60
表3-8虛擬平台的使用預試題項分佈 ................. 60
表3-9 家庭社經地位換算表 .......................... 62
表3-10 外向性極端組檢定結果 ...... 64
表3-11 外向性分量表之總解釋變異量表 ................. 65
表3-12 外向性因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 ................ 65
表3-13 外向性分量表刪題後之總解釋變異量表 ........... 66
表3-14 外向性因素分析刪題後成分矩陣 ............. 67
表3-15 合群性極端組檢定結果 ...... 67
表3-16 合群性分量表之總解釋變異量表 ............... 68
表3-17 合群性因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 ................ 69
表3-18 合群量表刪題後之總解釋變異量表 .............. 70
表3-19 合群性因素分析刪題後轉軸後成分矩陣 ............. 70
表3-20 謹慎性極端組檢定結果 .......71
表3-21 謹慎性分量表之總解釋變異量表 ................. 72
表3-22 謹慎性因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 ................ 72
表3-23 謹慎性分量表刪題後之總解釋變異量表 ............ 73
表3-24 謹慎性因素分析刪題後後成分矩陣 ................ 74
表3-25 神經質極端組檢定結果 .................... 74
表3-26 神經質分量表之總解釋變異量表 ............... 75
表3-27 神經質因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 ................. 76
表3-28 神經質分量表刪題後之總解釋變異量表 .............. 77
表3-29 神經質因素分析刪題後後成分矩陣 .............. 77
表3-30 開放性極端組檢定結果 ........................... 78
表3-31 開放性分量表之總解釋變異量表 .................. 79
表3-32 神經質因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 ................... 79
表3-33 開放性分量表刪題後之總解釋變異量表 ........... 80
表3-34 開放性因素分析刪題後後成分矩陣 ................ 81
表3-35 傳統霸凌受害者分量表極端組檢定結果 ............ 81
表3-36 傳統霸凌受害者分量表之總解釋變異量表 ............ 82
表3-37 傳統霸凌受害者因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 ................ 83
表3-38 傳統霸凌受害者分量表構面分析 ..................... 83
表3-39 傳統霸凌加害者分量表極端組檢定結果 ................ 84
表3-40 傳統霸凌加害者分量表之總解釋變異量表 .............. 85
表3-41 傳統霸凌加害者因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 .............. 86
表3-42 傳統霸凌加害者分量表構面分析 .................. 86
表3-43 虛擬霸凌受害者分量表極端組檢定結果 ................ 87
表3-44 虛擬霸凌受害者分量表之總解釋變異量表 .............. 88
表3-45 虛擬霸凌受害者因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 .............. 88
表3-46 虛擬霸凌受害者分量表構面分析 .................. 89
表3-47 虛擬霸凌加害者分量表極端組檢定結果 ............. 89
表3-48 虛擬霸凌加害者分量表之總解釋變異量表 ................ 90
表3-49 虛擬霸凌加害者因素分析轉軸後成分矩陣 ............ 91
表3-50 虛擬霸凌加害者分量表構面分析 ..................... 91
表3-51 五大人格特質量表正式試題題型分配表 ............... 92
表3-52 霸凌量表正式試題題型分配表 ................... 92
表4-1 正式問卷樣本基本資料分析表 ......................... 98
表4-2 傳統霸凌受害者量表各題項平均數和標準差 ............ 99
表4-3 傳統霸凌受害者量表各題作答結果百分比 ........... 100
表4-4 一年內曾經有過一次(含)遭受傳統霸凌經歷統計表 .... 101
表4-5 傳統霸凌受害者在受害之後所產生的影響(複選題) ... 101
表4-6 傳統霸凌受害者在受害之後會採取的行動(複選題) ...... 102
表4-7 傳統霸凌旁觀者在一年內旁觀頻率分析 ......... 103
表4-8 傳統霸凌旁觀者在看到霸凌事件時所採取的行動 ........ 103
表4-9 傳統霸凌受害者量表各題項平均數和標準差 ............ 104
表4-10 傳統霸凌加害者量表各題作答結果百分比 .......... 105
表4-11 一年內曾經有過一次(含)傳統霸凌加害者經歷統計表 ...... 106
表4-12 虛擬霸凌受害者量表各題項平均數和標準差 ............ 107
表4-13 虛擬霸凌受害者量表各題作答結果百分比 ............. 108
表4-14 一年內曾經有過一次(含)遭受虛擬霸凌經歷統計表 ... 109
表4-15 虛擬霸凌受害者在受害之後所產生的影響 ........... 109
表4-16 虛擬霸凌受害者在受害之後會採取的行動 ............. 110
表4-17 虛擬霸凌旁觀者在一年內旁觀頻率分析 ............. 111
表4-18 虛擬霸凌旁觀者在得知霸凌事件時所採取的行動 ......... 111
表4-19 傳統霸凌受害者量表各題項平均數和標準差 ..... 112
表4-20 虛擬霸凌加害者量表各題作答結果百分比 ........... 113
表4-21 一年內曾經有過一次(含)傳統霸凌加害者經歷統計表 ... 114
表4-22 國中學生使用行動電話自主性統計表 ............ 114
表4-23 國中學生使用網際網路自主性統計表 ................ 115
表4-24 國中學生每週使用網際網路日數統計表 ................ 115
表4-25 國中學生每次使用網際網路的時間 ................... 116
表4-26 每次使用即時通訊軟體的時間統計表 ................. 116
表4-27 國中學生部落格建置平台統計表(複選題) ............. 117
表4-28 國中學生使用網際網路的用途(複選題) ........... 117
表4-29 不同性別、年級及學業成就的學生在傳統霸凌及虛擬霸凌角色之差異性分析 ............................ 118
表4-30 性別、年級及學業成就在霸凌角色上的受試者間效應檢定以及平均數及LSD法事後比較表 .................. 119
表4-31 不同父母國籍、主要照顧者及社經地位的學生在傳統霸凌及虛擬霸凌角色之差異性分析 ... 121
表4-32 社經地位在霸凌角色上的受試者間效應檢定以及平均數及LSD法事後比較表 .............. 122
表4-33傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌角色間之相關性分析 .......... 136
表4-34男生、女生在傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌角色間之相關性分析 ..... 137
表4-35 五大人格特質對肢體霸凌受害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 .... 138
表4-36 五大人格特質對肢體霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 138
表4-37 五大人格特質對肢體霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數係數摘要表 . 138
表4-38 五大人格特質對言語、關係霸凌受害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 . 139
表4-39 五大人格特質對言語、關係霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 139
表4-40 五大人格特質對言語、關係霸凌受害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 . 139
表4-41 五大人格特質對捉弄型霸凌受害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 .... 140
表4-42 五大人格特質對捉弄型霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 140
表4-43 五大人格特質對捉弄型霸凌受害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ... 140
表4-44 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌受害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 ...... 141
表4-45 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 141
表4-46 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌受害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ..... 141
表4-47 五大人格特質對直接霸凌加害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 ...... 142
表4-48 五大人格特質對直接霸凌加害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 142
表4-79 五大人格特質對直接霸凌加害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ...... 142
表4-50 五大人格特質對言語、關係霸凌加害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 . 143
表4-51 五大人格特質對言語、關係霸凌加害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 .................. 143
表4-52 五大人格特質對言語、關係霸凌加害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 . 143
表4-53 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌加害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 ...... 144
表4-54 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌加害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 144
表4-55 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌加害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ... 144
表4-56 五大人格特質對行動電話霸凌受害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 .. 145
表4-57 五大人格特質對行動電話霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 ............. 145
表4-58 五大人格特質對網路霸凌受害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 ...... 145
表4-59 五大人格特質對網路霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 146
表4-60 五大人格特質對網路霸凌受害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ... 146
表4-61 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌受害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 ..... 146
表4-62 五大人格特質對網路霸凌受害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 146
表4-63 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌受害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 .... 147
表4-64 五大人格特質對文字型虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 . 147
表4-65 五大人格特質對文字型虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 .......... 147
表4-66 五大人格特質對文字型虛擬霸凌受害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 . 147
表4-67 五大人格特質對圖像型虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 . 148
表4-68 五大人格特質對圖像型虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 ............ 148
表4-69 五大人格特質對圖像型虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 . 148
表4-70 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測模式摘要表 ..... 149
表4-71 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 149
表4-72 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌加害者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ..... 149
表4-73 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌旁觀者迴歸預測模式摘要表 .... 150
表4-74 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌旁觀者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 150
表4-75 五大人格特質對傳統霸凌旁觀者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ..... 150
表4-76 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌旁觀者迴歸預測模式摘要表 .... 151
表4-77 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌旁觀者迴歸預測變異數分析摘要表 . 151
表4-78 五大人格特質對虛擬霸凌旁觀者迴歸預測係數摘要表 ..... 151
表4-79五大人格特質共線性診斷 ............ 152
表4-80 五大人格特質進行對於傳統霸凌與虛擬霸凌角色之迴歸分析 . 153
表5-1 五大人格特質與傳統霸凌及虛擬霸凌角色之關聯 ......... 165

圖 次
圖3-1 研究架構圖 ............ 51
圖3-2 外向性分量表因素陡坡圖 .... 65
圖3-3 外向性分量表刪題後因素陡坡圖 .............. 66
圖3-4 合群性分量表因素陡坡圖 ............. 68
圖3-5 合群性分量表刪題後因素陡坡圖 ........ 70
圖3-6 謹慎性分量表因素陡坡圖 ................. 72
圖3-7 謹慎性分量表刪題後因素陡坡圖 .......... 73
圖3-8 神經質分量表因素陡坡圖 ................... 75
圖3-9 神經質分量表刪題後因素陡坡圖 ............. 77
圖3-10 開放性分量表因素陡坡圖 .................. 79
圖3-11 開放性分量表刪題後因素陡坡圖 ........... 80
圖3-12 傳統霸凌受害者分量表因素陡坡圖 ............... 82
圖3-13 傳統霸凌加害者分量表因素陡坡圖 .............. 85
圖3-14 虛擬霸凌受害者分量表因素陡坡圖 ............. 88
圖3-15 虛擬霸凌加害者分量表因素陡坡圖 .............. 90
圖4-1 社經地位與父母國籍對言語、關係霸凌受害者之交互作用 ... 125
圖4-2 父母國籍與社經地位對言語、關係霸凌受害者之交互作用 ... 125
圖4-3 社經地位與父母國籍對傳統霸凌受害者之交互作用 .... 126
圖4-4 父母國籍與社經地位對傳統霸凌受害者之交互作用 ..... 127
圖4-5 社經地位與父母國籍對網路霸凌受害者之交互作用 ....... 128
圖4-6 父母國籍與社經地位對網路霸凌受害者之交互作用 ........ 128
圖4-7 父母國籍與主要照顧者對虛擬霸凌旁觀者之交互作用 ....... 129
圖4-8 主要照顧者與父母國籍對虛擬霸凌旁觀者之交互作用 ..... 130
圖4-9 父母國籍與社經地位對虛擬霸凌旁觀者之交互作用 ....... 131
圖4-10 社經地位與父母國籍對虛擬霸凌旁觀者之交互作用 ..... 132
圖4-11 主要照顧者與社經地位對虛擬霸凌旁觀者之交互作用 ..... 133
圖4-12 社經地位與主要照顧者對虛擬霸凌旁觀者之交互作用 ...... 134


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