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研究生:曹元志
研究生(外文):Cao-Yuan Zhi
論文名稱:應用於平面液晶顯示器閘級驅動器之晶片設計
論文名稱(外文):Chip Design of gate driver for TFT-LCD Applications
指導教授:林志明林志明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zhi-Ming Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:積體電路設計研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:37
中文關鍵詞:液晶顯示器閘級驅動器低功率高驅動力
外文關鍵詞:TFT-LCDgate driverlower powerHigh driving capability
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TFT-LCD驅動電路有兩種:源極驅動器和閘極驅動器。本論文的目標在於薄膜電晶體平面液晶顯示器(TFT-LCD)之閘極驅動晶片設計。此系統主要電路包含移位暫存器、升壓電路、輸出緩衝器。
我們提出一個驅動高負載的TFT-LCD閘極驅動器之全擺幅輸出數位緩衝器,利用單一電容提升技術(SCB)來提升驅動能力,是使用0.35 m製程技術以及使用Hspice模擬。結果顯示在驅動TFT-LCD UXGA規格的掃瞄線面板下,在操作電壓5 V時的延遲時間皆小於2.8 μs,功率消耗只有1.5 mW。

The driver circuits of TFT-LCD are composed of two parts, the source driver and the gate driver. In this thesis, we focus on the design of gate driver circuits for TFT-LCD display. The architecture consists of the following major blocks, i.e., a shift register, level shifter, and output buffer.
We propose a high-speed full-swing output digital driver for heavy-loads TFT-LCD gate drivers. High driving capability is achieved by using a Single Capacitor Bootstrapped (SCB) technique. The proposed technique the Capacitors numbers and thus can expect to have lower power consumption and reduce delay time. The gate driver has been implemented in TSMC 2P4M 0.35 m CMOS technology and Hspice. Measured results indicate that the delay time is within 2.8 μs for the scan-line load modeling of TFT-LCD UXQA panel in a 5 V supply voltage. The obtained average power is 1.5 mW.

摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
謝誌 iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES vi
LIST OF TABLES viii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1-1 Motivation 1
1-2 Organization of the Thesis 5
CHAPTER 2 TFT-LCD FUNDAMENTALS 6
2-1 Liquid Crystals 6
2-2 LCD Panel Structure 9
2-3 Driving Principle 11
2-4 Gamma Correction 12
2-5 Basic Functions of TFT-LCD Driver 14
2-6 SourceDriver 14
2-7 Direct-Bootstrap Techniques 15
CHAPTER 3 DESIGN OF GATE DRIVER 18
3-1 shift register 19
3-2 Level shifter 21
3-3 Digital Output Buffer 22
CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 27
4-1 Simulation and Measurement Results 27
4-2 Comparison 32
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 35
REFERENCES 36

LIST OF FITURES
Fig. 1.1 Block diagram showing the driving of an LCD panel 4
Fig. 1.2 Signals on the data line versus the waveforms on the near and far ends of the scan line for a large size TFT-LCD panel 4
Fig. 2.1 Phases of LC materials versus temperature 8
Fig. 2.2 Basic theory of liquid crystal display 8
Fig. 2.3 The vertical structure of LCD panel 10
Fig. 2.4 Pixel is controlled by appropriate pixel voltage VLC 10
Fig. 2.5 The effective circuit of each sub-pixel 11
Fig. 2.6 Diagrams of inversion method. (a) Frame Inversion (b) Row Inversion (c) Column Inversion (d) Dot Inversion 12
Fig. 2.7 Transparency-to-voltage curve 13
Fig. 2.8 Block diagram of a source driver 15
Fig. 2.9 Circuit diagram of the DB buffer 17
Fig. 2.10 Circuit diagram of the CDUB buffer 17
Fig. 3.1 The block diagram of gate driver 19
Fig. 3.2 Shift register of the gate driver 20
Fig. 3.3 Timing diagram of a shift register 20
Fig. 3.4 Schematic of the D-Flip-Flop 21
Fig. 3.5 Schematic of the level shifter 22
Fig. 3.6 Schematic of the inverter 24
Fig. 3.7 Schematic of the proposed SCB driver 24
Fig. 3.8 Equivalent circuits of the SCB driver during the pull-up operation, (a) at time prior to pull-up transient and (b) at time after input ramp-down period 25
Fig. 3.9 The internal voltage waveforms of nodes Vout, 1, and 2 when input signal is 5 V square waveform with the supply voltage of 5 V 26
Fig. 4.1 Pulse-wave responses of the SCB scan-line driver with 5 V voltage swing for a load of modeled LCD scan-line 29
Fig. 4.2 Transient waveforms at temperatures 0℃, 25℃ and 85℃ 29
Fig. 4.3 Transient waveforms with supply voltages of 5 ± 10% V 30
Fig. 4.4 Transient waveforms of the three channels of gate driver at nodes clk, in, rest, out1, out2, and out3 30
Fig. 4.5 Layout of the three channel gate driver, the effect size is 1.13μm× 0.9μm 31
Fig. 4.6 Gate driver IC for TFT-LCD driver circuit 31
Fig. 4.7 Power×delay versus output load capacitance of the SCB、DB and CDUB buffer 33
Fig. 4.8 Power versus supply voltage of the SCB、DB and CDUB
Driver 34

LIST OF TABLES
Table I Design rules of 17-in. SXGA TFT 3
Table II Timing specification of video signal. 3
[1] Albert Leung, “Source driver solution for TFT large size display,” Display Devices, no. 35, Jun. 2004.
[2] C.-W. Lu and K.-J. Hsu, “A high-speed low-power rail-to-rail column driver for AMLCD application,” IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1313–1320, Aug. 2004.
[3] 游孟潔, TFT彩色液晶顯示器, 全華圖書股份有限公司 民國九十七年.
[4] 陳連春, 最新液晶應用技術, 建興出版社 民國九十年.
[5] M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-Dependent Optical Activity of a Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 18, pp. 127–128, 1971.
[6] J. Fergason, Display Devices Utilizing Liquid Crystal Modulation, U.S. patent no. 3,731,986.
[7] E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Display, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN: 0-471-49029-6, 2001.
[8] E. Willem den Boer, Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display, Newnes., ISBN: 0-7506-7760-0, 2005.
[9] 許維仁, 應用低溫多晶矽製程實現之液晶顯示器驅動電路, 國立交通大學電子工程系碩士論文, 民國九十二年.
[10] http://www.ie.thit.edu.tw/news/TFT-LCD.ppt
[11] 汪芳興, 平面顯示器驅動原理及線路分析, 財團法人自強工業科學基金會, 專業及技術人才培訓計畫講義, 民國九十五年八月.
[12] J.-H. Kim, B.-D. Choi, and O.-K. Kwon, “1-billion-color TFT-LCD TV with Full HD format,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 51, no. 4, Nov. 2005.
[13] Y. H. Tai, Design and operation of TFT-LCD panels, ISBN: 9571142913, Jun. 2006.
[14] S.-J. Kim, Y.-C. Sung, and O.-K. Kwon, “Pre-emphasis driving method for large size and high resolution TFT-LCDs,” SID Int. Sym Tech. Pap., vol. 34, pp. 1354–1357, 2003.
[15] J. H. Lou and J. B. Kuo, “A 1.5-V full-swing bootstrapped CMOS large capacitive-load driver circuit suitable for low-voltage CMOS VLSI,” IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 119–121, Jan. 1997.
[16] P. C. Chen and J. B. Kuo, “Sub-1V CMOS large capacitive-load driver circuit using direct bootstrap technique for low-voltage CMOS VLSI,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 265–266, Mar. 2002.
[17] H.C. Lai and Z. M. Lin, “A high-speed full swing CMOS driver for TFT-LCD scan-line circuit,” IEEE TENCON, pp. 1 – 3, Oct. 2007.

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