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研究生:王建文
研究生(外文):Chien-Wen Wang
論文名稱:台灣三大都會區空氣污染物之週末效應
論文名稱(外文):Weekend Effect of Air Pollutants in the Three Metropolitan Areas of Taiwan
指導教授:談珮華談珮華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei-Hua Tan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:史地學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:189
中文關鍵詞:台灣都會區空氣汙染物週末效應自然季節
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摘要

本文旨在研究台北、台中、高雄三大都會區空氣污染物的週末效應,即檢驗其濃度在週末與非週末期間的差異是否具統計的顯著性。分析這三大都會區在1994-2008年間,27個一般測站的地面觀測資料,包括NOX、CO、NMHC、O3、SO2、PM10、NO2、NO、NO2+O3等九項污染物,及太陽輻射強度UV-A、UV-B。
以整年來看,三大都會區的九項污染物之日平均濃度皆有週末效應,除了O3以外, 其餘污染物濃度皆是非週末大於週末。若分成四季,除了台中都會區夏季的O3、高雄都會區夏季的CO、NO2+O3與春、秋、冬季的O3之外,其餘的污染物在三大都會區的四季都有週末效應。若分成五個自然季節,除了台北都會區秋季的NO2+O3、冬季的PM10,台中都會區冬季的PM10,高雄都會區春雨季及冬季的O3、梅雨季及颱風季的NO2+O3、颱風季的CO、PM10之外,其餘的污染物在三大都會區的自然季節都有通過統計檢定。太陽輻射強度UV-A、UV-B在三大都會區則皆沒有觀察到週末效應。
在三大都會區的非週末期間,NOX、CO、NMHC、NO2、NO、SO2 PM10等污染物的逐時平均濃度均呈現明顯雙峰的型態,原因和上下班的交通尖峰時刻有關,而週末期間的雙峰型態則較平緩。O3與NO2+O3則呈現單高峰的情形。以每小時來看,除了O3濃度是週末大於非週末,其餘污染物濃度大多是非週末大於週末。因同時間的O3前驅物是非週末大於週末,但太陽輻射卻沒有明顯較強,所以NO滴定效應可能是主要機制。
在三大都會區的逐年資料顯示:除了O3濃度是週末大於非週末,其餘污染物濃度大多是非週末大於週末,且大部分污染物濃度在週末、非週末期間均呈現逐年下降的趨勢。台北、台中都會區SO2的週末效應有逐年遞減的趨勢,這是因為非週末的遞減量較週末大。高雄都會區的NOX、CO、NO2、NO2+O3等污染物的週末效應有逐年增加的趨勢,這是因為非週末的遞減量較週末小。

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to investigate the weekend effect, defined as the difference in concentrations of air pollutants between weekends and weekdays, in the Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung metropolitan areas. Surface measurements from twenty-seven stations of the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) from 1994 to 2008 are used to analyze air pollutants including NOX, CO, NMHC, O3, SO2, PM10, NO2, NO, NO2+O3, and solar radiations of UV-A and UV-B. The daily mean concentrations of nine air pollutants are all found with weekend effect in the three metropolitan areas. Except O3, the other eight air pollutants are lower on weekends than on weekdays. For the four seasons, the nine air pollutant concentrations in the three metropolitan areas are found with weekend effect except O3 in summer in the Taichung metropolitan area, CO and NO2+O3 in summer and O3 in spring, autumn, and winter in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. For the natural seasons, the nine air pollutant concentrations in the three metropolitan areas are found with weekend effect except NO2+O3 in autumn and PM10 in winter in the Taipei metropolitan area, PM10 in winter in the Taichung metropolitan area, O3 in the spring rainfall and winter seasons, NO2+O3 in the plum rain and typhoon seasons, and CO and PM10 in the typhoon season in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. The daily mean radiations of UV-A and UV-B are observed no weekend effect in the three metropolitan areas.
For the diurnal cycle, a common traffic-related double-peak variation is observed in the concentrations of NOX, CO, NMHC, NO2, NO, SO2 and PM10 in the three metropolitan areas on weekdays while the double-peak pattern is not significant on weekends. Except O3, the hourly concentrations of other eight air pollutants are mostly lower on weekends than weekdays for each hour. The ozone weekend effect might be due to the NO titration effect since the ozone precursors are lower during weekends than weekdays, however, the solar radiations are not significant different between the two periods.
Except O3, the interannual variations of other eight air pollutants are lower on weekends than weekdays for each year. The concentrations of most air pollutants have decreasing trends not only on weekends but also on weekdays. There is a weakening weekend effect of SO2 in the Taipei and Taichung metropolitan areas due to the larger decreasing trend on weekdays than weekends. The weekend effect on NOX, CO, NO2 and NO2+O3 in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area is increasing due to the smaller decreasing trend on weekdays than weekends.

目次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………..………………….………… I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………..…………………………….… II
謝誌……………………………….……………………………….………………………………..…………………. IV
目次…….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………… V
圖次…………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………….… VII
表次……………….…………………………………………………………………………..….………………….... IX
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………….…………….….…... 1
第一節 研究動機………………………………………..……………………………………………...…. 1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………..…………………………………………….... 1
第三節 研究區概述………………………………………..……………………………………………... 2
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………...…………………….……..………….... 9
第一節 台灣都會區之定義與分類………………………..………………………………….…... 9
第二節 國外的週末效應與空氣汙染物之研究……..………………………..……….….… 10
第三節 台灣地區的週末效應與空氣汙染物之研究……..…..……….……………….…. 12
第四節 自然季節之研究…………………………………………………..….…………………….….. 15
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………………………………………... 16
第一節 研究流程…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
第二節 研究資料…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
第四章 研究結果…………....……………………………………………………………………….……. 25
第一節 台北都會區之污染物分析….……………………………………………..………………. 25
第二節 台中都會區之污染物分析………………………………………………………..….……. 52
第三節 高雄都會區之污染物分析………………………………….………………………..……. 75
第四節 三大都會區之污染物分析比較…………………………................................. 100
第五節 三大都會區污染物之空間分布……………………………………….………….….... 108
第五章 結論……………………………………………………………………….………...………….….... 120
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………..….……………………..….. 127
附錄A..……………………….………………………………………………..…………………………..……... 附-1
附錄B..……………………….………………………………………………..……………………………..…... 附-9
附錄C..……………………….………………………………………………..………………………………..... 附-19
附錄D..……………………….………………………………………………..………………………………..... 附-23
附錄E..……………………….………………………………………………..…………………………………... 附-28
附錄F..……………………….………………………………………………..…………………………………... 附-36

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