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研究生:詹亞平
研究生(外文):Ya-Ping Chan
論文名稱:探討幾丁聚醣與苦茶粕萃取物對白絹病菌之抑制效果
論文名稱(外文):Study on the inhibition of Sclerotium rolfsii by chitosan and oiltea oilcake extracts
指導教授:楊瓊儒
指導教授(外文):Chiung-Ru Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:生物資源學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:白絹病幾丁聚醣苦茶粕防治
外文關鍵詞:southern blightchitosanoiltea oilcakecontrol
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:188
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
蝦蟹類的甲殼是台灣的重要漁業加工廢棄物,苦茶粕為苦茶樹種子提煉苦茶油後之殘渣,二者如果能廢物利用,則能化腐朽為黃金,故本文探討成品或自製幾丁聚醣,以及苦茶粕或其商品化製劑好賽螺之萃取物對來自牛蒡的白絹病菌(Sclerotium rolfsii)之防治效果。在PDA培養基上以L棒抹勻幾丁聚醣溶液處理,對白絹病菌之抑制效果皆不如混入PDA培養基的效果,後者又以0.5 % (w/v) 幾丁聚醣不論是成品或自製的處理皆可完全抑制菌絲生長及菌核之產生(P<0.01),顯示幾丁聚醣以混入土壤方式可能防治效果較佳。不論是以L棒抹勻或混入PDA培養基方式,苦茶粕萃取物的防治效果皆優於好賽螺萃取物處理,且以10 % (w/v) 苦茶粕浸泡2天之水萃取物與10 % (w/v)苦茶粕甲醇萃取物稀釋成1 % (w/v) 等處理之效果最好(P<0.01)。在PDB培養液中,不論是接種菌核或菌絲塊,皆以0.5 % (w/v) 幾丁聚醣的抑制菌絲生長的效果最好,尤其0.5 % (w/v) 成品幾丁聚醣可達到完全抑制菌核再長出菌絲的效果。在PDB培養液中,不論是接種菌核或菌絲塊,皆以苦茶粕萃取物處理優於好賽螺萃取物處理,且不論是5 % (w/v) 浸泡2天、10 % (w/v) 浸泡2天、5 % (w/v) 浸泡7天、10 % (w/v) 浸泡7天或10 % (w/v) 甲醇浸泡1小時等之萃取物處理皆呈現菌絲零成長(P<0.01)。0.25 % 苦茶粕研磨粉處理的電導度高於對照組,顯示可能影響白絹病菌的細胞膜通透性。菌核在10℃~35℃下,只有在10℃且未經消毒的黏土中至第153天後仍未發芽外,其餘處理不論是未經消毒或無菌狀態下的黏土與砂土,皆在2~7天發芽,而10℃且未經消毒的黏土中的菌核移至PDA培養基上仍具有發芽能力。在-20℃下,無論是未經消毒或無菌狀態下的泥炭土、黏土與砂土中,經線性迴歸分析後,其菌核存活率皆隨著時間而下降,尤其是在無菌的砂土及泥炭土中下降更大。第1次番茄亞蔬六號盆栽試驗,在試驗第30天,以1 % (w/w) 苦茶粕研磨粉、10 % (w/v) 苦茶粕甲醇萃取物稀釋成1 % (w/v) 水溶液與10 %苦茶粕浸泡2天的萃取物稀釋成1 % (w/v) 水溶液等處理抑制白絹病效果最好,尤其1 % (w/w) 的苦茶粕研磨粉處理完全抑制菌絲生長(P<0.01);處理若各再添加尿素或過磷酸鈣,並不能促進防治效果,反而有增加病害趨勢。第2次番茄亞蔬六號盆栽試驗,在試驗第30天,0.25 % (w/w)、0.5 % (w/w) 與1 % (w/w) 的苦茶粕研磨粉處理皆可完全抑制白絹病菌絲生長(P<0.01)。
Shells of Crustaceans are Taiwan's major shellfish processing wastes and oiltea oilcake is residue of Camellia oleifera Abel after oil extraction which both can be used in agriculture. The control efficiency of chitosan, both commercial product (chitosan-s) and chitosan prepared from shrimps and crabs (chitosan-m), and oiltea oilcake extracts on Sclerotium rolfsii isolated from burdock was conducted in this study. Mixing chitosan with PDA medium showed better control than spreading chitosan on PDA by L rod, and 0.5 % (w/v) chitosan, whether chitosan-s or chitosan-m, completely inhibited mycelial growth and sclerotium regeneration ( P < 0.01 ). The results suggested that chitosan mixed with soil should have better control than just putting it on soil. Either by L rod spread or mixing with PDA, oiltea oilcake extracts have better control than Hao Saai Roll extracts. The control efficiency of 10 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake 2 days-dipping extracted by water diluted to 1 % (w/v) and 10 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake extracted by methanol diluted to 1 % (w/v) are better than other treatments ( P < 0.01 ). In PDB broth, regardless of sclerotia or mycelial pieces as inoculum, 0.5 % (w/v) chitosan inhibited mycelial growth ( P < 0.01 ). Particularly, the 0.5 % (w/v) chitosan completely inhibited the germination of sclerotia. In PDB broth, regardless of sclerotia or mycelial pieces as inoculum, the control efficiency of oiltea oilcake extracts was better than Hao Saai Roll extracts. The 5 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake 2 days-dipping, 10 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake 2 days-dipping, 5 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake 7 days-dipping, 10 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake 7 days-dipping all extracted by water and 10 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake extracted by methanol completely inhibited mycelial growth ( P < 0.01 ). Only the conductivity of 0.25 % (w/w) oiltea oilcake crude powder was higher than control, probably due to effect on cell membrane permeability. Sclerotia at 10℃ and in unsterile clay soil didn’t germinate up to 153 days but immediately germinated on PDA. Sclerotia at 10℃ ~ 35℃ and in two kinds soils ( clay soil and sandy soil ), sterile or unsterile, germinated in 2 ~ 7 days. At -20℃, whether in sterile or unsterile of peat moss, clay soil and sandy soil, the survival rate of sclerotia decreased with time, especially at sterile sandy soil and peat moss. The first tomato Tainan-AVRDC 6 pot test showed that the control efficiency of 1 % (w/w) oiltea oilcake crude powder, 10 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake extracted by methanol diluted to 1 % (w/v) and 10 % (w/v) oiltea oilcake 2 days-dipping extract by water diluted to 1 % (w/v) inhibited growth of southern blight pathogen for 30 days. The 1 % (w/w) oiltea oilcake crude powder completely inhibited mycelial growth ( P < 0.01 ). Addition of urea or superphosphate did not increase control efficiency. The second tomato Tainan-AVRDC 6 pot test showed that 0.25 % (w/w), 0.5 % (w/w) and 1 % (w/w) oiltea oilcake crude powder completely inhibited S. rolfsii mycelial growth for 30 days ( P < 0.01 ).
目次
壹、 中文摘要…………………………………………………………1
貳、 英文摘要…………………………………………………………3
參、 前言………………………………………………………………6
肆、 前人研究…………………………………………………………8
伍、 材料與方法………………………………………………………17
(一)、 試驗材料………………………………………………17
一、 供試植物………………………………………………17
二、 供試白絹病菌株………………………………………17
三、 製備幾丁聚醣溶液……………………………………17
四、 製備苦茶粕及好賽螺水浸出液之萃取物……………18
五、 儀器設備………………………………………………18
(二)、 試驗方法………………………………………………20
一、 以PDA培養基測試幾丁聚醣溶液對白絹病菌生長的影響………………………………………………………20
二、 以PDA培養基測試苦茶粕與好賽螺萃取液對白絹病菌生長的影響……………………………………………21
三、 以PDB培養液測試幾丁聚醣溶液對白絹病菌生長的影響………………………………………………………21
四、 以PDB培養液測試苦茶粕與好賽螺萃取液對白絹病菌生長的影響……………………………………………22
五、 幾丁聚醣溶液對白絹病菌絲細胞膜通透性的影響…22
六、 苦茶粕與好賽螺萃取液對白絹病菌絲細胞膜通透性的影響……………………………………………………23
七、 在不同溫度及土壤測試白絹病菌核的存活…………23
八、 苦茶粕與幾丁聚醣對番茄亞蔬六號白絹病的盆栽防治試驗……………………………………………………24
(三)、 生物統計分析…………………………………………26
陸、 結果………………………………………………………………27
一、 以PDA培養基測試幾丁聚醣溶液對白絹病菌生長的影響………………………………………………………27
二、 以PDA培養基測試苦茶粕與好賽螺萃取液對白絹病菌生長的影響……………………………………………29
三、 以PDB培養液測試幾丁聚醣溶液對白絹病菌生長的影響………………………………………………………31
四、 以PDB培養液測試苦茶粕與好賽螺萃取液對白絹病菌生長的影響……………………………………………31
五、 幾丁聚醣溶液對白絹病菌絲細胞膜通透性的影響…32
六、 苦茶粕與好賽螺萃取液對白絹病菌絲細胞膜通透性的影響……………………………………………………32
七、 在不同溫度及土壤測試白絹病菌核的存活…………33
八、 苦茶粕與幾丁聚醣對番茄亞蔬六號白絹病的盆栽防治試驗……………………………………………………33
柒、 討論………………………………………………………………36
捌、 參考文獻…………………………………………………………40
玖、 圖表………………………………………………………………51
附錄 …………………………………………………………………80

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