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研究生:廖宣淳
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Chun Liao
論文名稱:托爾金中土世界裡魔法與巫師的次創造
論文名稱(外文):Tolkien's Sub-creation of Magic and Wizard in Middle-earth
指導教授:陳鏡羽陳鏡羽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fanfan Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:創作與英語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:托爾金次創造魔法巫師
外文關鍵詞:J. R. R. TolkienMagicWizardSub-creation
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自古至今在文學想像的領域中,關於魔法(magic)這個主題充滿著各式各樣熱烈的討論聲音。在托爾金最知名的作品,《魔戒三部曲》、《哈比人歷險記》以及《精靈寶鑽》中也出現了對魔法的討論。精靈女王曾說:『魔法的使用會出現在良善的一方,但也同時被使用於強敵之手』。托爾金在信中提到,對於魔法該如何界定,一直都是個模糊的難題,但是他深信根據使用的動機會讓魔法的定義產生區別。因此托爾金提出了對於Magia 與Goeteia間不同的論點。Magia 的魔法帶有藝術價值,其目的並非用於展現力量或淪為殘酷的工具。反之敵人們所使用的Goeteia的動機自然傾向由控制來達成目的。
藉由次創造的觀念,托爾金呈現他對魔法的定義與語言的密切關係。其中出現了兩位重要的巫師角色甘道夫和薩魯曼,從他們的人物性格刻劃,命名,相關神話,與火元素的關聯性,以及最重要的從他們所使用的語言模式都具體的呈現出托爾金對於Goeteia 和Magia的詮釋。兩位巫師原先的目的是到中土世界來幫助人類以及其他種族來抵抗強敵索倫。甘道夫使用的魔法,詮釋Magia的單純以及良善,希望藉由語言能力以及智慧的張顯傳播於不同的種族之間。甘道夫點亮的是光明的神聖之火,甚至一度不惜犧牲自己的性命來成就大局。反之,薩魯曼受到了至尊魔戒的誘惑,墮落為有如另一個黑魔王再世。對於權力的野心和掌控慾,迫使薩魯曼使用充滿肅殺之氣的鋼鐵之火,運用他的言語蠱惑人心,甚至與自然為敵,燒森林砍伐樹木。將墮落精靈與半獸人混種來產生大量軍力,企圖把艾辛格改造成私人野心實踐的大工廠。
本篇論文希望藉由托爾金精練的文字以及文學想像的引領,討論在作者的中土世界中有關魔法與巫師的次創造。進一步從兩位巫師的性格刻畫,以及語言表達方式,探討與托爾金所定義的精靈魔法(Elvish craft)。
Within the realm of literary imagination, the thematic discussion of Magic continues to be uttered by the various voices of different writers. Among J. R. R. Tolkien’s distinguished works, The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion, the notion of magic is also implied as an important theme in the story. Nevertheless, the use of magic contains an ambiguous zone when different motives are involved. Tolkien points out in his letters that this confusion is caused by the use of the word magic since its devices and operations are both applied by the Enemy and the Elves. Therefore, he further defines the distinction between Goeteia and Magia. In fact, magic in Tolkien’s sub-creative world indicates a form of “Elvish craft,” and its object is Art not Power, sub-creation not domination and tyrannous re-forming of Creation” (Letters 146). On the contrary, the magic used by Enemy is always naturally concerned with sheer Domination, and so he is the Lord of magic and machines.
In addition, magic is further embodied by the characterization and language style of the two wizards Gandalf and Saruman in Tolkien’s sub-creative Middle-earth. Through the comparative studies about their naming and myth, their relation to the fire element and also their speech styles, the two characters present the distinction between Goeteia and Magia in the story. Initially, the two wizards function to unite different species and endure the Enemy. On the one hand, the magic used by Gandalf is magia, which produces real results for specific beneficent purposes and their goetic effects are entirely artistic and not intended to deceive. Moreover, Gandalf serves to be the servant of the Holy Fire, who presents wisdom and hope to other living beings. On the other hand, Saruman, having been seduced by the Ring, he degenerates and uses magic in the way of the Enemy. With a burning desire for domination and aggressive ambition, Saruman chooses machinery and industrialization, which causes destructive and evil effects in the story. Saruman’s malicious power of goeteia is enhanced by the intention to deceive and the venom in his language. With goetic intention, Saruman holds hostile attitude toward nature, especially for trees, and he transforms his dwelling place Isengard into an Iron-town.
This thesis firstly aims to explore Tolkien’s sub-creation of magic and wizardry through his artistic way of fantasy writing. Moreover, the ideas of magia and goeteia could be demonstrated by the two wizards, Gandalf and Saruman through their characterization and speech styles. By embedding aesthetic value in language, Tolkien’s sub-creation of magic and wizard aims to reach a form of Elvish art through the expression of language.
Table of Contents…………………………………………i
Acknowledgement……………………………………………iii
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………v
Abstract………………………………………………………vi
Introduction…………………………………………………1

Chapter One: Tolkien’s Sub-creation of Wizard: Faërie, Enchantment and Magic……………………………………5
1. “Elvish Craft” and Enchantment…………………9
2. Magia and Goeteia……………………………………13
3. Wizard as the Magic Performer……………………19

Chapter Two: Naming and Myths of the Wizard in Middle-earth………………………………………………………23
1. The Naming of Gandalf………………………………26
1.1 An “Odinic Wanderer” in Disguise?…………28
1.2 “Gandalf” from Hobbits’ Perspectives……31
1.3 A Cloaked Wanderer with Many Names…………37
2. Goeteia and the Naming of Saruman……………40
2.1 An Etymological Study of “Saruman”………43

Chapter Three: Music and Fire……………………47
1. From the Great Music to the Imperishable Flame and the Rebellious Fire………………………………………48
1.1 Melkor and Discord…………………………….48
1.2 The Enchanting Song of Lúthien before Mandos
……………………………………………………………50
1.3 The Disturbed Music: From Melkor and Sauron to Saruman……………………………………………………52
2. From the Imperishable Flame of the Great Music to the Element Fire of Gandalf………………………………54
2.1 Gandalf’s Fireworks……………………………55
2.2 The Flames of Mount Doom and the Secret of Narya, the Ring of Fire……………………………………………57
2.3 The Servant of Holy Fire Confronting the Fire Demon………………………………………………………59
2.4 Resurrection from Death: Escape and Consolation………………………………………………62
3. Saruman’s Power of Fire: Industrialized Mind, Body and Surroundings……………………………………………64
3.1 From Multi-colors to Grey Mist………………………………………………………65
3.2. Saruman from the Ents’ Perspective: A Malicious Attitude toward Nature………………………………67
3.3. Saruman: the Master of Orcs and the Manipulator of Palantír…………………………………………………69
3.4 The “Industrialized” Isengard………………72
3.5 Water and the Scouring of Shire: Recovery and Consolation………………………………………………73

Chapter Four: The Power of Wizards’ Language…………………………………………………79
1. Reconciliation of Magia: from Gandalf the Grey to Gandalf the White……………………………………79
1.1 Translation………………………………………80
1.2 Communication……………………………………86
1.3 Gandalf’s “Prophetic Language” and the Style of “Loose Talk”………………………………………90
2. Saruman’s Language: a Disturbed Music……………………………………………………99
2.1 Saruman’s Performance and the Narrative Situation………………………………………………99
2.2 From ethos to pathos…………………………104
2.3 The Poetic Duel of Wizardry: Magia versus Goeteia………………………………………………109

Conclusion…………………………………………115

Works Cited……………………………………….119


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