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研究生:薛守恩
研究生(外文):Shou-En Hsueh
論文名稱:3D環繞音效無線耳機系統設計與實作
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of a Wireless Headphone System with 3D Surrounding Sound
指導教授:徐偉智徐偉智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Chih Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:電腦與通訊工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:無線耳機環繞音效
外文關鍵詞:wireless headphoneHRTF
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現在人們的生活越來越富足,對於聲光效果的刺激要求也更高,因此有許多相關技術、產品因此誕生。最為大家所認識的為杜比實驗室所研發出來的多聲道技術,許多電影院、家庭劇院、DVD等…,使得人們置身此環境中,就有如親臨現場一樣。然而雖然有相關的技術、產品研發出來,但是一般人家裡卻因為空間、價格等因素無法嘗試到這些享受。
我們在這次研究的主題,將原已存在於DVD裡面的多聲道音訊經使用「頭部轉移函數」(Head Related Transfer function,HRTF)產生出以雙聲道虛擬多聲道音場的效果,使人類大腦可以清楚的了解發生的位置、距離。再將處理後的雙聲道從電腦輸入到發射器以優於CD品質的規格(48kHz、16bits、Stereo)經由2.4GHz無線傳輸成為3D環繞音效無線耳機系統。
在整個系統處理過程中,HRTF就必須包含振幅的大小、振幅的衰淢、時間的延遲、及左右耳的時間差這些轉換,以及如何將多聲道混音縮成雙聲道效果還保持有環繞的效果,再搭配高品質的無線傳輸模式讓整個系統不但有顧及音樂品質而且更佳便利。
Nowadays, there are more and more innovation technologies and new additional products been produced and created because of the prosperity of people’s life and people’s highly demands to the stimulus of the sound and light effect. The most known is the Dolby Laboratories Inc which invented the multi-channel technology, such as movie theater, home theater and DVD, etc. It can let people think they are in the real live environment. However, this innovation technology and the new additional products still couldn’t let everyone of us to use because not all the people have the enough space and money to enjoy them.
The research topic is focusing on the multi-channel audio which is stored in DVD by using Head Related Transfer function,HRTF, that can produce dual-channel which will have the virtual multi-channel effect. And this dual-channel can let our cerebrum know the position and distance well. Besides, the next step is that we input the processed dual-channel from computer to the projectile. The processed dual-channel which is better than CD’s specification (48kHz、16bits、Stereo) goes through 2.4GHz wireless transmission into 3D surround sound hand free headset system.
In the whole system process, HRTF included the magnitude and decrease of amplitude of vibration, the delay of time, the transformation of time difference from people’s ear to the other. The most important is that it has the effectiveness which is how to have the multi-channel sound into dual-channel sound and still keep the live effect. Finally, this whole system will enhance the quality of music and be more convenient if it utilizes the high-quality wireless transmission module.
中文摘要  ------------------------------------------------------------------- i
目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------- ii
表目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------- iv
圖目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------- v
一、緒論 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1   引言 ------------------------------------------------------ 1
  1.2   研究動機 ----------------------------------------------- 1
二、5.1聲道介紹 ------------------------------------------------------------ 3
  2.1   杜比技術介紹 -------------------------------------------- 3
  2.2  杜比數位5.1聲道介紹 ---------------------------------- 4
   2.2.1  中聲道/前聲道 --------------------------------------- 6
   2.2.2  環繞聲道 ----------------------------------------------- 7
   2.2.2  低音聲道 ----------------------------------------------- 7
三、3D音效原理 -------------------------------------------------------------- 8
  3.1   聽覺構成要素 ----------------------------------------------- 8
  3.2   辨位構成要素 ----------------------------------------------- 10
3.3   音效模組 ------------------------------------------------------ 11
四、HRTF的求得與應用 ---------------------------------------------------- 17
  4.1   HRTF介紹 ---------------------------------------------------- 17
  4.2   求得HRTF ---------------------------------------------------- 17
  4.3   量測原理 ----------------------------------------------------- 21
  4.4   HRTF Database來源介紹 -------------------------------- 22
    4.4.1  M.I.T的HRTF Database ----------------------------- 23
   4.4.2  Wisconsin大學的HRTF Database ----------------- 25
  4.5  以HRTF模擬5.1聲道 -------------------------------------- 27
  4.6  Downmix --------------------------------------------------------- 28
五、無線耳機傳輸系統架構 ----------------------------------------------- 29
  5.1   系統架構 ----------------------------------------------------- 29
  5.2   MCU處理晶片 --------------------------------------------- 29
   5.2.1  核心CPU簡介 --------------------------------------- 30
   5.2.2  特殊功能暫存器 ------------------------------------- 32
   5.2.3  I/O端口 ------------------------------------------------ 33
  5.3   無線收發模組 ----------------------------------------------- 36
   5.3.1  SPI控制原理 ------------------------------------------ 38
   5.3.2  無線傳輸系統架構 ---------------------------------- 40
  5.4   專利分析 ----------------------------------------------------- 44
六、系統實作與分析 -------------------------------------------------------- 47
6.1  程式的規劃 ----------------------------------------------------- 47
6.2  各聲道經過HRTF轉換實做 ------------------------------- 48
  6.2.1  兩個Wave檔的迴旋積分 -------------------------- 49
  6.2.2  正規化 ------------------------------------------------- 51
  6.2.3  存放結果 ---------------------------------------------- 52
6.3 Dowmix實做 ------------------------------------------------- 53
七、結論與未來改進方向 --------------------------------------------------- 55
  7.1  結論 -------------------------------------------------------------- 55
  7.2  未來改進方向 ------------------------------------------------- 55
參考文獻 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
[1] B. Gardner and K. Martin ,HRTF Measurement of a KEMER Dummy-Head Microphone ,MIT Media Lab ,1994

[2] Fred Wightman and Doris Kistler University of Wisconsin-Madison ,
HRTF Database

[3] 3D Working Group of the Interactive Audio Special Interest Group ,
“3D Audio Rendering and Evaluation Guidelines Version 1.0”,
June 9, 1998

[4] 3D Working Group of the Interactive Audio Special Interest Group ,
“3D Audio Rendering and Evaluation Guidelines Level 2.0” ,
June 9, 1998

[5]”Fundamental and Technological Limitations of Immersive Audio Systems”,CHRIS KYRIAKAKIS,PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 86, NO. 5, MAY 1998

[6]”5.1-Channel Production Guidelines”,Dolby Laboratories

[7]”Digital Audio Compression (AC-3, E-AC3) Standard, Rev. B”,ATSC

[8] 王小川,”語音訊號處理”,2004

[9] 劉昌偉 台灣大學 ,以電腦研究三度空間之聽覺聲學 ,1997

[10] 石育誠,2002,”3D音效軟體元件設計與效能評估”,國立高雄第一科技大學電腦與通訊工程系碩士論文

[11] 劃時代的音效技術 「聽音辨位」,http://www.mediatek.com.tw/

[12] HRTF 3D 定位音效技術探討,http://www.cmedia.com.tw/

[13] Dolby Laboratories,http://www.dolby.com/index.html
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