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研究生:李致賢
研究生(外文):Chih-Hsien Lee
論文名稱:零售業跨國經營策略-以台商零售業在中國市場為例
論文名稱(外文):The International Strategy of Taiwan Retailing Localization in China
指導教授:許英傑許英傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yin-Chiech Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:行銷與流通管理所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:進入策略台商零售業當地化行銷策略地主國因素
外文關鍵詞:Entry strategyLocal marketing strategyLocalizationTaiwanese retail
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隨著中國加入世界貿易組織,全面開放零售市場,使全球大型跨國零售業者,紛紛加入競爭,一方面改變了中國的市場風貌,一方面也使中國零售業市場成為重量級的競技場,可謂充滿機會也充滿挑戰,因此,本研究針對目前台商零售業者在中國市場發展的重要性加以說明,及瞭解目前台商零售業者為因應當地市場需求,採取當地化回應的必要性。
本研究致力於探討台商零售業進入中國市場時影響當地化程度之關鍵因素與經營績效關係之研究,並根據相關理論,建構研究架構。故本研究基於研究背景與動機,介紹台商投資中國零售市場的近況及地主國因素及產業因素和公司因素跟探討海外市場進入策略(進入模式與進入時機)之相關理論及研究進行文獻回顧與探討,繼而提出本研究之研究架構及命題,本研究以抽樣架構進行普查共250份,有效回收份數為148份,並透過實證分析(以線性結構模式),將研究發現與過去學者加以整合,並從中發現當地化策略整體效益展現在台商零售業者對市場的快速反應以及有效降低成本,提昇台商零售業的位階。因此執行當地化的深入程度有助於台商零售業者在競爭激烈的同業當中,提升自身的競爭力。本研究共歸納出五項主要發現:
1.在地主國因素(環境不確定性、文化距離)對於價格與地點當地化程度呈顯著正相關,故建議台商零售業者進入中國市場時,應針對投資環境及商圈特性洞察清晰後,以著重於零售當地化的執行。
2.在產業因素(競爭程度)與當地化程度呈顯著正相關;台商零售業需注意新舊競爭者在市場的活躍性與策略思維,以適時回應競爭者的行動,徹底執行當地化。
3.在公司因素(自主性、社會網絡、市場導向與供應鏈管理)與當地化程度呈部分顯著;子公司期望提供顧客在服務或產品上的差異化,則應適時對顧客需求給予回應,方能較易於獲取當地的競爭優勢(Roth and Morrison,1991),而其供應鏈管理的佈局尤為重要,能使台商零售業者對市場快速反應以及有效降低成本;更重要的是母公司授予特定的權力,減少控制,讓子公司能發揮對當地適時的回應(Dunning ,1981;Poter ,1990),以取得永續經營。
4.商品、地點及價格當地化程度對於經營績效呈正相關;促銷當地化與經營績效不呈顯著關係,當地子公司應思考如何調整促銷活動的規劃,來提升績效。
5.台商零售業採取獨資及合資模式進入中國市場,皆會強化公司因素之自主性、社會網絡、市場導向及供應鏈管理對於商品及價格當地化程度之關係。以及早期進入中國市場者,皆會強化地主國之文化距離及公司因素對於商品、促銷、地點及價格當地化程度之關係,以及產業因素之競爭程度對於地點當地化程度之關係,零售商應採用不同的彈性運用進入策略,並評估自身資源和條件之後,做最佳的選擇。
According to China''s accession to the World Trade Organization, the full liberalization of the retail market, makes the global large multinational retailers have joined the competition, on the one hand to change the outlook of China''s market, but it is also the Chinese retail market has become the heavyweight arena, can be described as full of Opportunities and challenges.This study showed that Taiwanese retail market development in the Chinese situation and understand the current Taiwanese retailers to respond to the importance of localization.This study investigated the Taiwanese to enter the Chinese market, local retail level and the relationship between business performance and introduce Taiwan''s current situation invest in China retail market, the host factors, industry factors and company factors with the strategy of overseas market entry of the relevant theory.In this study, a census sampling structure 250, the valid number of copies for the 148 and, through empirical analysis(linear structure model), the study finding integrated with academics whose study is in the past, we discovered the overall efficiency of the local strategy showing retailers in Taiwan''s rapid response to market and reduce costs and enhance the retail Taiwan rank.This study summarized the five points following:
1.In the host country factors (the environment of uncertainty, cultural distance) for the price and location of the local degree of positive correlation, It is suggested that need to focus on the investment environment and business district features a clear insight into the after to focus on the implementation of retail local when Taiwanese retailers enter the Chinese retail market.
2.It is positive correlation in the industry factors (competition) and the local degree. In order to timely respond to competitor actions, and complete implementation of the localization. It is necessary to pay attention to the new and old competitor activity in the market and strategic thinking.
3.It is part of correlation in the company factors(autonomy, social networks, market orientation and supply chain management) and local degree: In order to expect subsidiaries can provide customer service or different product to consumer so, subsidiaries should be given a timely response to customer needs. In this way, Subsidiaries can be much easier to obtain a competitive advantage to local (Roth and Morrison, 1991); In addition, the layout of their supply chain management is particularly important to make Taiwanese retailers to market and reduce the cost of rapid response, furthermore, the most important is the parent company to grant specific power and reduce control to Subsidiaries, so that subsidiaries can play on the local and timely response (Dunning, 1981; Porter, 1990) to obtain sustainable.
4.It is positive correlation in product, location and price performance of the local degree: There is no significant relationship between local promotion and management performance. Subsidiary should consider how to adjust the planning of promotional activities to improve their performance.
5.Taiwanese-owned and joint-venture model of retail to enter the Chinese market, both factors will strengthen the company''s autonomy, social networks, market orientation and supply chain management for product and the price relationship between the local level. Taiwanese retail, which enters into the Chinese market in early period, will strengthen the cultural distance from the host country and company factors in the product, promotion, location, price relationship between the local level, and industry competition factors for the relationship between the degree of local sites, Retailers should be flexibility in using of different entry strategy and evaluate their own resources and the conditions to make the best choice.
中文摘要.I
英文摘要.II
誌謝.III
目錄.IV
表目錄.VI
圖目錄.VIII
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節研究背景 1
第二節研究動機 3
第三節研究目的 5
第四節研究範圍 6
第五節論文結構與研究流程 7
第貳章 文獻探討 10
第一節台商零售業者進入中國市場之概況 10
第二節當地化程度 17
第三節地主國因素 21
第四節產業因素 27
第五節公司因素 29
第六節經營績效與當地化程度之關係 38
第七節進入策略 41
第參章 研究方法 48
第一節研究架構 48
第二節研究假設 49
第三節操作性定義 50
第四節研究設計 59
第五節問卷預試 62
第肆章 研究結果分析 64
第一節樣本基本資料分析 64
第二節信效度分析 68
第三節結構模式分析 74
第四節進入策略對當地化程度之結構模式分析 78
第伍章 結論與建議 83
第一節研究結論 83
第二節研究貢獻與實務建議 94
第三節研究限制與後續研究建議 97
參考文獻 99
一、中文文獻 99
二、英文文獻 100
附錄一 正式問卷 118

表 目 錄
表2- 1 全球零售機會排行 11
表2- 2 台商赴中國投資分業統計表(僅顯示部份行業) 12
表2- 3 中國投資分區統計表 13
表2- 4 按登記註冊類型分限額以上批發和零售業和餐飲業基本情況 13
表2- 5 台商零售業者在中國前50大之排名 14
表2- 6 當地化定義彙整 17
表2- 7 Davison 對海外市場進入模式之分類 44
表3- 1 本研究之研究假設 49
表3- 2 環境不確定性之來源 50
表3- 3 文化距離之來源 51
表3- 4 產業因素之來源 53
表3- 5 公司因素之來源 54
表3- 6 當地化程度之來源 57
表3- 7 進入策略之來源 58
表3- 8 經營績效之來源 59
表3- 9 前測問卷信度 63
表4- 1 樣本發放及回收情形 64
表4- 2 台商零售業當地子公司基本資料 66
表4- 3 問卷信度 68
表4- 4 測量模型問項因素負荷量檢測結果 70
表4- 5 問卷信效度 72
表4- 6 測量模型構念之區別效度 73
表4- 7 本研究假設檢定結果 77
表4- 8 進入模式 78
表4- 9 獨資進入模式檢定結果(T統計量) 79
表4- 10 進入時間 80
表4- 11 早期進入時機檢定結果(T統計量) 80
表4- 12 合資進入模式檢定結果(T統計量) 81
表4- 13 晚期進入時機檢定結果(T統計量) 82

圖 目 錄
圖1- 1 研究流程圖 9
圖2- 1「整合-當地回應化架構」 19
圖2- 2 市場導向的構面 33
圖2- 3 市場導向架構圖 34
圖3- 1 本文研究架構 48
圖4- 1 PLS模型分析結果 75
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