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研究生:劉翠涵
研究生(外文):Liu, Tsui-Han
論文名稱:台灣獼猴對墾丁地區茄苳種子之分布模式與命運的影響
論文名稱(外文):Seed Spatial Distribution and Post-dispersal Fate of Bischofia javanica Dispersed by Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Kenting
指導教授:蘇秀慧蘇秀慧引用關係林宜靜林宜靜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Su, Hsiu-HuiLin, Yi-Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:野生動物保育研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:41
中文關鍵詞:傳播效益種子命運傳播距離空間分布台灣獼猴
外文關鍵詞:Dispersal effectivenessPost-dispersal FateDispersal distanceSpatial DistributionMacaca cyclopis
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靈長類動物的種子傳播對森林樹種的更新扮演著重要角色,傳播者的食物處理方式,以及所形成的種子空間分布模式,將影響種子命運,進而影響森林的更新。本研究評估台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)對茄苳(Bischofia javanica)的傳播效益,針對經獼猴利用後的種子進行種子發芽試驗,以得知獼猴對種子的各項處理是否影響種子的發芽能力,並藉由實際追蹤猴群所得的移動路線與活動項目,以及餵食圈養獼猴所測得種子在消化道中的滯留時間,而推估出獼猴傳播種子的距離和傳播後種子分布的密度。
結果顯示,台灣獼猴的消化道與排遺所提供的環境是可以促進茄苳種子發芽的,種子經歷頰囊的處理後,比起未經獼猴處理的種子亦具有較高的發芽率。被獼猴吞下的茄苳種子,經獼猴的移動與消化道處理後排出,而被傳播離開母樹,平均傳播距離為258.7公尺,最遠可達662.5公尺。在獼猴移動和休息間,所吐出的茄苳種子呈現非叢聚的分布狀態,且密度顯著低於母樹樹冠下未經傳播的種子,而睡覺地點排遺所形成的種子密度則顯著高於母樹樹冠下的。台灣獼猴食用茄苳果實,對其種子的處理方式讓種子有較高的發芽能力,且將種子帶離母樹,而在白天活動時吐出的種子形成較低的種子密度。因此,台灣獼猴為具有高效益的種子傳播者。

Seed dispersal is an essential ecological process for forest regeneration Especially, seed dispersal by primates has been shown to increase seed survival and germination, thus critically impacting subsequent seedling establishment. In this study, I evaluated the effectiveness of Taiwanese macaque(Macaca cyclopis) as a seed disperser of Bischofia javanica in the Kenting area. Gut retention time and germination rates of digested seeds were estimated by captive macaque individuals. Movement patterns and foraging behavior of Taiwanese macaque was studied. I estimated seed dispersal distance and spatial distribution generated by Taiwanese macaques. The results suggest that germination rates of seeds handled by Taiwanese macaques, either in their digestive tracts, feces, or cheek-pouch, are significant higher than seeds without macaque’s handling. The average dispersal distance is 258.7 m, and the maximum distance is 662.5 m. However, longer gut retention time is not necessary leading to longer dispersal distance, since Taiwanese macaque has a winding traveling route. Macaques can scatter seeds during traveling and resting, which were deposited in a lower density compared to that under the tree crown of parent trees. Seeds are clumped at their sleeping sites, since they reuse several high-coral reefs as the sleeping sites. This study suggest that seed dispersal resulted by Taiwanese macaques could enhance germination of seeds, disperse seeds away from parent trees, and deposit seeds into variable density. Therefore, Taiwanese macaque is an effective seed disperser for B. javanica.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
圖表目錄 IX
壹、 前言 1
貳、 材料與方法 4
一、研究地點 4
二、研究對象 4
三、種子命運 5
四、種子分布模式 7
(一) 茄苳種子在台灣獼猴腸道中滯留時間 7
1. 25%、50%及75%的茄苳種子被圈養台灣獼猴排泄出的時間 7
2. 茄苳種子在台灣獼猴消化道平均滯留時間 8
(二) 種子傳播距離 8
(三) 台灣獼猴所傳播與未被傳播種子的分布密度 9
五、資料分析 10
(一) 種子命運 10
(二) 分布模式 10
參、 結果 12
一、種子命運 12
(一) 種子發芽率 12
(二) 種子平均發芽天數 12
二、種子分布模式 13
(一) 茄苳種子在台灣獼猴腸道滯留時間 13
(二) 種子傳播距離 13
(三) 經台灣獼猴傳播與未經傳播種子分布密度 14
肆、 討論 15
一、種子命運 15
二、種子分布模式 16
(一) 種子傳播距離 16
(二) 種子分布密度 18
參考文獻 22
作者簡介 40


圖表目錄
圖 1 靈長類種子傳播模式與種子命運關係之流程圖 2
圖3 種子命運的實驗流程圖 7
圖4 種子分布模式的實驗流程圖 10
圖2 恆春熱帶植物園區 27
圖5 不同處理的平均種子發芽率及95%信賴區間 28
圖6 不同處理之種子的發芽天數及發芽率 29
圖7 茄苳種子經台灣獼猴攝食後在腸道的滯留時間 30
圖8 K1a的連續活動路線圖 31
圖9 K1b的連續活動路線圖 32
圖10 LSa的連續活動路線圖 33
圖11 LSb的連續活動路線圖 34
圖12 LSc連續活動路線圖 35

表1 不同處理的茄苳種子的平均發芽率 36
表2 不同處理的茄苳種子之平均發芽天數 37
表3 茄苳種子在台灣獼猴腸道的滯留時間與所推估出的被傳播的距離 38
表4 台灣獼猴進行各種活動時所傳播的與未經傳播的種子密度 39


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