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研究生:李政鴻
研究生(外文):Cheng-Hung Lee
論文名稱:法國的地緣戰略(1648-2009)
論文名稱(外文):The Geostrategy of France(1648-2009)
指導教授:翁嘉禧翁嘉禧引用關係曾怡仁曾怡仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jia-hsi WengI-jen Tseng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:中國與亞太區域研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:198
中文關鍵詞:法國地緣戰略歐洲地緣政治地緣戰略地緣政治
外文關鍵詞:geostrategy of Francegeopolitics of Europegeopoliticsgeostrategy
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法國領土毗鄰海陸的地理位置,地緣政治擴張可依循海陸兩個方向進行:海上包括大西洋與地中海兩條路徑,法國經大西洋擴大在西印度群島以及北美洲殖民勢力,另一方面跨越地中海,將勢力延伸至北非、中東、紅海、印度洋以及南海,在非洲、印度次大陸和中南半島等地建立殖民地;陸地擴張路徑則是向東橫越北歐平原,直至烏拉山。對法國而言,最理想的狀況是同時發展海權及陸權,並能夠在海、陸雙邊壓制主要對手。但是,現實情況就非如此順利,法國的外交政策需考量國際體系、歐洲地緣政治的約制等因素,並隨國際體系變遷而調整外交、軍事政策,以符合國家能力,法國地緣戰略的歷史演變即是在如此條件背景下進行。
本文採取古典地緣政治研究途徑,藉由地理、地緣政治以及地緣戰略等三個概念,勾勒出長時期法國地緣政治以及地緣戰略變化,並依循以下推演過程:第一,法國所處地理位置構成地緣戰略原型,即海權與陸權的雙元擴張路徑,並據此實踐國家地緣戰略目標;第二,法國實踐地緣戰略目標的過程,所遭受的反作用力,其他權力核心的崛起以及結盟所形成的反法勢力,如何影響並使法國修正地緣戰略;第三,再檢視法國修正地緣戰略所凸顯的地緣政治意義,是否存在變與不變的特殊意涵;最後,透過歷史事實檢驗法國地緣戰略的演變,釐清哪些是關鍵的影響因素。
最後可歸結以下幾點法國地緣戰略的特性:(一)法國領土同時毗鄰海陸的地理特性,既是地緣政治擴張路徑,同時亦是海權受限的原因,凸顯法國地緣戰略的理想與現實雙面性;(二)法國對歐洲進行雙軌權力平衡政策,阻擾周遭區域成立新國家,擔任大國間權力平衡者;(三)大革命後法國仍以地緣政治,而非意識型態,作為對外政策的考量;(四)德意志區域統一衝擊法國地緣政治,壓制德國成為法國至今的地緣戰略;(五)歐洲地緣政治特性:控制世界,卻未能產生歐洲帝國。

The location of France is both adjacent to land and sea, therefore France’s geopolitical expansion could follow two directions of land and sea. Regarding sea expansion path, France established colonies in North America and West Indies by sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. In addition, across the Mediterranean France could expand her geopolitical influence to North Africa, Middle East, Rea Sea, India Ocean and the South China Sea. France also established colonies in Africa, India and Indochina. Regarding land expansion path, North European plain is best way for conquer European continent. The ideal scenario for France is expanding sea power and land power altogether by suppressing main competitors. However, France’s foreign policy needs to be considered with international system and European geopolitics. The geostrategy of France evolved under such historical context.
This dissertation applies classical geopolitical approach, includes concepts of geography, geopolitics and geostrategy, to depict the changes of France’s geopolitics and geostrategy for a long time. The study’s deductive logic accords with following points. First of all, location of France constructed her proto-type geostrategy as well as dual expansion by sea and land; secondly, in the situation that other European powers formed anti-France alliance, France practiced and revised her targets of geostrategy; thirdly, revisiting geopolitical meaning of France’s revised geostrategy, the study tries to find out geopolitical change and unchanged; finally, the study clarifies key effect factors through historical facts of evolution of France’s geostrategy.
In sum, this dissertation concludes the geostrategy of France as following: (1) France’s territory is the base of expansion by land and sea; it’s also the condition restricting French sea power. In other words, the location of France constructs her geostrategy pro and con; (2) France practices policy of “balance of power”, preventing from new state building nearby area, and being the balancer of big powers; (3) After French revolution, geopolitics, not ideology, is still the main consideration of France’s foreign policy; (4) Germany unification impacts French geopolitics, suppressing Germany is key geostrategy of France until now; (5) Controlling whole world without European empire is the attribute of European geopolitics.

第一章 序論....................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的........................................1
第二節 文獻回顧..............................................4
第三節 研究途徑與方法........................................21
第四節 研究流程與章節安排....................................28
第二章 法國崛起—全球大爭霸(1648-1815)…………………….........31
第一節 法國與哈布斯堡王朝的歐洲大陸衝突(1648-1715)…………...32
第二節 法國與英國的全球爭霸(1715-1763)…………………………...46
第三節 法國霸權的再現(1763-1815)…………………………………...59
第四節 小結..................................................73
第三章 法國地緣政治轉變—從理想到現實(1815-1945)……….........77
第一節 兩次革命與第二帝國(1815-1871)……………………………...78
第二節 德意志統一與第一次世界大戰(1871-1918)…………………...92
第三節 兩次大戰期間與第二次世界大戰(1918-1945)………………...105
第四節 小結..................................................116
第四章 大戰後的法國地緣政治—困境與突破…………………..........119
第一節 戴高樂主義—現實的困境(1949-1991)………………………...119
第二節 後冷戰時期歐洲地緣政治變動與法蘭西地緣戰略(1991-2009).132
第三節 後冷戰時期的法蘭西地緣政治意義……………………………..146
第四節 小結................................................. 154
第五章 結論....................................................157
第一節 研究發現............................................. 157
第二節 從事實與理論反思古典地緣政治學的適用性…………………..161
第三節 未來研究議題......................................... 167
參考書目........................................................169
附錄............................................................183

一、中文部分

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(二)期刊論文

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(二)期刊論文

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Kaplan, Robert D. May/June 2009, “The Revenge of Geograph,” Foreign Policy, pp. 96-105.
Kramer, Steven P., 1991. “La Question Française,” Politique Étrangére, Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 959-974.
Mackinder, Halford J., July 1943, “The Round World and the Winning of the Peace,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 21, pp. 595-605.
Menon, Anand, 1995, “From Independence to Cooperation: France, NATO and European Security,” International Affairs, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 19-34.
Merchet, Jean-Dominique, 2005, “Les Transformations de l’armée Française,” Hérodote, No. 116, pp. 63-81.
Spykman, Nicholas J., Feb., 1938, “Geography and Foreign Policy I,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 28-50.
Vernet, Daniel, Oct. 1992, “The Dilemma of French Foreign Policy,” International Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 655-664.
Yost, David S., 1989, “France in the New Europe,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 69, pp. 107-128.

(三)網站資料

Ehrhart, Hans-Georg, January 2000, “France and NATO: Change by Rapprochement?” Heft 121, Hamburg, pp. 1-32, http://www.ifsh.de/pdf/publikationen/hb/hb121.pdf
Joyner, James, 19 Mars, 2009, “France in Collision Course on NATO? “ Atlantic Council, http://www.acus.ort/print/3427
Michel, Leo, 6 Dec. 2008, “France’s Return to NATO Can Complement EU Security,” Speigel, http://www.spiel.de/international/0,1518,drunk-559304,00.html
Moran, Michael, “French Military Strategy and NATO Reintegration,” Council on Foreign Relations (March 12, 2009), http://www.cfr.org/publication/16619/french_military_strategy_and_nato_reintegration
Verluise, Pierre, “La France de Retour Dans le Commandement Integre de l’OTAN?” 1 Oct. 2007, http://www.diploweb.com/spip.php?page=imprimer&id_article=82

(四)官方資料
Fifteenth Ambassadors Conference—Speech by M. Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic (Paris), 27 August 2007, Http://www.premier-ministre.gouv.fr/en/information/press_871/fifteenth_ambassadors (2009年6月15日閱讀)
Le Ministère de la Défense, ALTO (trans), The French White Paper on Defence and National Security. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2008. http://merln.ndu.edu/whitepapers/France_English2008.pdf. (2009年7月1日閱讀)
Le Ministère de la Défense, Livre Blanc Sur la Defense, 1994, http://merln.ndu.edu/whitepapers/France1994part1.pdf. (2009年7月1日閱讀)
Lettre et Memorandum du General de Gaulle au General Eisenhower (17 Septembre 1958), http://www.ena.lu. (2009年7月1日閱讀)
NATO Allied Command Operation, http://www.nato.int/shape/news/2009/07/090727a.html (2009年7月1日閱讀)
Treaty on European Union, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/treaties/dat/11992M/htm/11992M.html#0104000047 (2009年7月8日閱讀)

(五)新聞媒體

Le Figaro, “France / Otan : les arguments pour et contre ,” 11 Mars, 2009, http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2009/03/11/01003-20090311ARTFIG00495-franceotan-1
Le Figaro, “Pour Bayrou, Sarkozy jette aux orties l’héritage gaulliste ,” 12 Mars, 2009, http://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/2009/03/12/
Le Figaro, “Quand Mitterrand déjā négociait le retour dans l’Otan ,” 13 Mars, 2009, Http://www.lefigaro.fr/international /2009/03/11/
Le Figaro, “Otan : Jospin et Fabius font front commun contre Sarkozy ,” 18 Mars, 2009, http://www.lefigaro.fr/polituqye/2009/03/18
Le Monde, “L’Assemblée nationale donne son feu vert au retour de la France dans l’OTAN,” 17 Mars, 2009, http://www.lemonde.fr/web/imprimer_element/0,40-0@2-3224,50-1168927,0.html


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