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研究生:吳雪鳳
研究生(外文):Sheue-feng Wu
論文名稱:歐洲的地緣政治:以德意志為中心
論文名稱(外文):The Geopolitics of Europe
指導教授:翁嘉禧翁嘉禧引用關係曾怡仁曾怡仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jia-hsi WengI-Jen Tseng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:中國與亞太區域研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:324
中文關鍵詞:德國歐洲整合地緣政治歐洲能源
外文關鍵詞:geopoliticsEuropeGermanyEuropean integrationenergy
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本研究透過歷史探討歐洲地理空間賦予歐洲各政治實體的機會與限制,以地緣政治學為基礎分析歐洲地緣政治演變的關鍵機制,及歐洲各國在歷史中的權力互動關係。
從地緣政治變遷的角度考察歐洲歷史,可以發現──德意志的興衰起落是整個歐洲地緣政治秩序的關鍵變數。1648年德意志地區因列強利益分配不均而被以分裂方式處置,但法、英、俄等歐洲強權卻得以在權力平衡中穩定成長。1871年德意志統一,歐洲原有的穩定秩序受到破壞,接著歐洲爆發兩次世界大戰。1945年至1989年德國再度被外力分裂,歐洲秩序回歸穩定,也出現首次的和平整合。1990年德國再次統一,從歐洲歷史洪流的發展脈絡來看,統一的德國擁有政治與經濟等支配歐洲的實力與機會。現在,再一次德意志地區對歐洲地緣政治的作用再度重要起來。不論是俄羅斯的能源地緣戰略復興計畫,或美國藉由北約擴張歐洲勢力範圍,以及團結在里斯本條約下的歐洲國家欲對抗美國支配全球體系的霸權力量,都難以將德國排除在外,甚至可以說缺乏德國的歐洲戰略將失去核心支點。從複雜的歐洲戰爭歷史到二十一世紀歐洲地緣政治的權力互動關係,德意志一直都是歐洲權力互動關係的核心。
This dissertation will fully research the opportunities and restrictions of European states from the geography of Europe, analyze the key mechanism of transformations of the European geopolitics and the power interactions among European states based on the theories of geopolitics in history.
To investigate the European history from the dimension of the changes of geopolitics, we can find that the key element within the whole geopolitical order of Europe is the rise and the fall of Germany. In 1648, the Deutschland was partitioned due to the failed distribution of German interests among the European powers. Furthermore, the dissociation of Germany made the European powers, such as France, Britain, and Russia grow stably in the balance of power. In 1871, Germany unified under Bismarch’s strategy. The unification of Germany destroyed the stable order of Europe, especially the balance of power. Then, two world wars broke out. From 1945 to 1989, Germany was partitioned again. This brought the European order back to a stable situation, also it was the first time for Europe to be integrated peacefully. In 1990, Germany was unified again. From the development of European history, an unified Germany owned the abilities and chances to dominate Europe in politics and economics. Now Germany plays an important role in the geopolitics of Europe once more. No matter what the revival plan of Russian energy geostrategy is, how America extends its sphere of influence in Europe, and how the European states under the Lisbon Treaty oppose the American global hegemony, it is hard to exclude Germany from Europe. Moreover we can say if Germany is absent from Europe, the European strategy will lose its pivot. From the complicated war history of Europe to the power interactions of European geopolitics in the 21 century, Germany is still the key point of the European power politics.
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機與目的………..……………………………….…………….1
一、 研究動機……………………………………………….…………….1
二、 研究目的………………………………………….………………….3
第二節 文獻檢討………………………………………………………………5
一、 國內學術研究概況…………………………………………….…….5
二、 國外學術研究概況……………………………………………….….7
第三節 研究方法、途徑與架構……………………..……………………….16
一、 研究方法……………………..………………………………….….16
二、 重要理論、研究途徑與層次……………………………….……….18
三、 研究架構、範圍與限制…………………………………….……….27
第四節 概念界定………………………...…..……………………………….30
一、 歐洲(Europe)…………………………………….………………..30
二、 地緣政治(Geopolitics)……………………………………………31
三、 中北歐平原…………………………………………………………..32
四、 德意志(Germany)…………………………………………………37
五、 歐洲共同體(European Communities)/歐洲聯盟(European Union)
………………………………………………………………………..38
第二章 歐洲的歷史地理…………………………………..…………39
第一節 歐洲的地理………………………….……………………………….40
一、 半島、島嶼與山脈………………………………………………….40
二、 海洋與河川………………………………………………………….42
三、 地理與政治………………………………………………………….45
第二節 德意志的中心性……………………………………….…………….47
一、 地理與德意志地區………………………………………………….48
二、 歐洲強權與德意志地區…………………………………………….51
三、 歐洲強權與主導歐洲統一戰爭的可能性………………………….57
第三章 三十年戰爭與中北歐平原的分裂與戰亂(1648-1871年)..61
第一節 三十年戰爭與德意志戰場……………………….………………….62
一、 戰爭源起與參戰國動機…………………………………………….66
二、 締造滿足狀態的和平…………………………….………………….68
三、 政治地理角力……………………………………….……………….70
第二節 德意志戰場與十七、十八世紀的歐洲……………….…………….72
一、 歐洲各國的外交思維……………………………………………….73
二、 戰爭與歐洲權力的消長…………………………………………….75
第三節 反霸權戰爭與中北歐平原的統一之路……………………………102
一、 霸權、聯盟與戰爭…………………………………………………103
二、 和平的基礎…………………………………………………………110
三、 中北歐平原的統一之路…………………………………………....113
第四章 統一後的德意志(1871−1945年)……….…………………135
第一節 德意志第二帝國……………………………………………………136
一、 俾斯麥時期,1871-1890…………………………………………...136
二、 威廉二世時期,1890-1918…………………………………………150
第二節 威瑪共和時期………………………………………………………167
一、 強行規定的和平……………………………………………………167
二、 歐洲秩序與法蘭西體系……………………………………………172
三、 德國地緣政治理論的起源…………………………………………178
第三節 德意志第三帝國……………………………………………………183
一、 權力再興與地緣戰略………………………………………………184
二、 國際權力互動與姑息………………………………………………189
三、 歐洲地理傷痛的戰鬥………………………………………………197
第五章 歐洲地緣政治的鉅變(1945年−2010年)…………………207
第一節 德國的分裂…………………………………………………………208
一、 列強的盤算與肢解德意志………………………………………..209
二、 歐洲新問題………………………………………………………..211
三、 美國的安全保證與兩個德國……………………………………..215
第二節 冷戰、歐洲分裂與德意志…………………………………………217
一、 美、蘇對峙下的歐洲………………………………………………217
二、 法國與歐洲自力救濟-歐洲整合…………………………………220
三、 德意志與國際環境變遷……………………………………………224
四、 為統一而努力………………………………………………………229
第三節 中北歐平原的震盪與轉化…………………………………………236
一、 歐洲整合與其驅動力………………………………………………237
二、 德國、歐洲與泛大西洋關係………………………………………244
三、 歐洲地緣政治的賽局………………………………………………259
第六章 結論………………………………………..………………..277
一、 難以改變的地理現實…………………………………………..…278
二、 德意志的分、合與歐洲………………………………………..…283
三、 歐洲整合──國家仍然是權力運作的中心…………………..…..287
歐洲地緣政治年表……………………………………………………293
參考書目………………………………………………………………299
一、中文部分
(一)專書
Arnold Toynbee and Frank T. Ashton-Gwatkin, 2007,國際事務概覽•第二次世界大戰第1卷:1939年3月的世界。上海:上海譯文出版社。
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洪丁福,1994,德國的分裂與統一:從俾斯麥到柯爾。台北:台灣商務印書館。
張才果,1999,地緣政治與北約東擴。台北:國防管理學院年。
張錫模,2003,聖戰與文明。台北:玉山社出版事業股份有限公司。
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郭恒鈺,2001,德意志帝國史話。台北:三民書局股份有限公司。
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(二)期刊論文
王傳照,2004年12月,「論地緣政治與德意志第二帝國之興亡」,國防雜誌,19卷2期,頁93-105。
吳志中,2003年10月,「歐盟東擴政策的地緣政治佈局」,歐洲聯盟研究協會2003年年會。
───,2004年9月,「歐盟東擴之後的新地緣政治意涵」,社會新天地,第9期,頁4-14。
───,2005年12月,「探討歐洲憲法之地緣政治意義與發展」,臺灣國際法季刊,2卷4期,頁7-38。
張錫模,2002年5月,「歐洲的地緣政治革命」,TaiwanNews總合週刊,第28期,頁50。
───,2005年6月,「西伯利亞鐵道的臺灣軌跡」,當代,第214期,頁58-69。
(三)網路資料
「歐盟峰會討論決策制度改革」,BBC中文網,2000年12月08日,<http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_1060000/newsid_1061700/1061748.stm>
大英百科全書,2006年,大英線上繁體中文版,<http://wordpedia.eb.com/tbol/article?i=054419>.
張錫模,2003年3月,「歐洲的政治力學與戰略焦慮」,張錫模專欄,南方快報,<http://www.southnews.com.tw/specil_coul/Chang/Chang_index.htm>。
二、英文部分
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(二)期刊論文
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(三)官方資料
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(四)網路資料
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(五)新聞媒體
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Bryar, Jack, “Siemens Could Team With Russia’s Atomenergoprom,” Nuclear Power Industry News, 26 Jan. 2009, <http://nuclearstreet.com/blogs/nuclear_power_news/archive/2009/01/26/siemens-could-team-with-russia-s-atomenergoprom.aspx>. 25 March. 2010.
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Socor, Vladimir , “German Auto Maker Opel Passes from American to Russian Hands,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol.6 Issue 107 (4 June 2009), < http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35083>. 12 Oct. 2009
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