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研究生:廖士睿
研究生(外文):Shih-ruei Liao
論文名稱:以形態特徵重建黃毒蛾族〈鱗翅目:毒蛾科〉之親緣關係
論文名稱(外文):Phylogenetic reconstruction of the tussock moth tribe Nygmiini (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) based on morphological characters
指導教授:顏聖紘顏聖紘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shen-Horn Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:幼蟲形態親緣關係學黃毒蛾族毒蛾科夜蛾總科
外文關鍵詞:phylogeneticsNygmiiniLymantriidaeNoctuoidealarval morphology
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黃毒蛾族是一群主要分佈在舊世界的毒蛾類群。黃毒蛾族之所以被建立是為了能夠在分類上放置過去一直被依附於目前仍是複系群的黃毒蛾屬EuproctisHübner, 1819 的數個屬;而黃毒蛾屬本身乃是根據Euproctis chrysorrhoea(Linnaeus, 1758)(=Phalaena chrysorrhoea)所創設,自19 世紀至今已涵括682 個有效學名。黃毒蛾族幼蟲通常為廣食性且被認為是木本植物的重要害蟲。而且這些幼蟲身上所覆蓋的原生以及次生剛毛均是嚴重的過敏原,因此黃毒蛾幼蟲也在公共衛生議題中扮演重要的角色。雖然黃毒蛾屬是組成黃毒蛾族主要的分類,但是關於黃毒蛾屬的單系性以及親緣關係均從未被以現代的親緣重建分析所測試。因此在本研究中,本研究以175 個毒蛾物種與1 種燈蛾科物種為外群,根據各發育時期的形態特徵重建黃毒蛾的親緣關係。本研究的結果支持黃毒蛾族與古毒蛾族為一姐妹群,然無論是一般作者所認為的黃毒蛾屬或是olloway 所倡議的黃毒蛾族之單系性皆不被支持,因此根據本研究所重建之假說,黃毒蛾族的界限頇被重新定義。另一方面,幼蟲特徵為黃毒蛾族共有衍徵的重要來源,然成蟲翅紋在屬間則高度地趨同,因此這樣的特徵在系統分類上無法提供有意義的資訊。
The Nygmiini is a tussock moth tribe which is redominantly distributed in most regions of the Old World. It was established in order to accommodate several genera
that were previously associated with the polyphyletic genus Euproctis Hübner, 1819, which was erected upon the western European Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus,
1758)(=Phalaena chrysorrhoea) and has included 682 valid specific names since the early 19th century. The caterpillars of Nygmiini are fairly polyphagous on various
woody plant families, and thus many of them are considered as pests with significant importance. They are also known for having importance in public health due to the strong allergic reaction caused by the urticating setae. Although the tribe Nygmiini as well as the core genus Euproctis has such importance in various aspects, it’s
monophyletic status and phylogenetic relationships have never been tested using modern phylogenetic methods. I therefore sampled 175 lymantriid species representing most of the potential members of Nygmiini plus one arctiid species as the outgroup taxon to reconstruct the phylogeny of this tribe based on morphological characters from all development stages. The results suggest that the tribe Orgyiini forms a monophyletic clade with the Nygmiini, while neither the Nygmiini sensu Holloway nor the genus Euproctis sensu auctorum is monophyletic, and thus the taxonomic boundary of the tribe should be redefined in accordance to the hypothesis proposed by the present study. On the other hand, larval characters become the major source of the synapomorphies of the Nygmiini. The adult wing patterns which are used to taxonomic identification, however, are highly convergent among genera and thus these characters are not supposed to be informative in systematic research.
一、前言 1
二、材料與方法 7
三、結果 24
四、討論 32
五、參考文獻 36
圖1:根據曾經被提出的毒蛾科內部分類群假說所重建的樹形圖 44
圖2:全距陣且未經特徵加權處理的最簡約親緣關係樹 45
圖3:全距陣且經特徵加權處理的最簡約親緣關係樹 47
圖4:僅具完整特徵距陣且未經特徵加權處理處理的最簡約嚴格共同樹 50
圖5:僅具完整特徵距陣並經特徵加權處理的最簡約親緣關係樹 51
圖6:僅具完整特徵距陣去除幼蟲特徵且未經特徵加權處理的最簡約親緣關係樹52
圖7:利用僅具完整特徵距陣中的成蟲期以及蛹期特徵並經特徵加權處理的最簡約親緣關係樹53
圖8:利用僅具完整特徵距陣去除成蟲與蛹特徵且未經特徵加權處理的最簡約共同嚴格樹54
圖9:利用僅具完整特徵距陣中的幼蟲期特徵並經特徵加權處理的最簡約嚴格共同樹55
圖10:燈蛾科與毒蛾科標本 56
圖11:毒蛾科黃毒蛾族標本 57
圖12:毒蛾科成蟲生態照 58
圖13:雌蟲生殖器 59
圖14:雄蟲腹部與陰莖 60
圖15:雄蟲生殖器 61
圖16:雄蟲生殖器 62
圖17:雄蟲生殖器 63
圖18:雄蟲生殖器 64
圖19:毒蛾科各式蛹以及卵的形態 65
圖20:幼蟲各部位結構說明以及幼蟲生態照 66
圖21:毒蛾科幼蟲 67
圖22:毒蛾科幼蟲 68
表1:毒蛾科科級學名之主要變革 69
表2:本研究中所有取樣之物種資訊 70
表3:本研究中取樣之屬級分類群資訊 73
表4:本論文所使用標本之來源典藏機構全名與縮寫一覽表 76
表5:依據曾經被提出的毒蛾科內部分類群所限制的親緣關係限制群組 77
表6:利用不同分類群以及特徵性質所重建之親緣關係樹 78
表7:利用Templeton 與Kishino-Hasegawa tests 測試各種系統分類假說 79
附錄1:重建毒蛾科內部親緣關係的全距陣 80
附錄2:利用全距陣所重建且未經特徵加權處理的親緣關係樹上各個節點之特徵變化84
附錄3:利用全距陣所重建並經特徵加權處理的親緣關係樹上各個節點之特徵變化91
附錄4:利用僅具有完整距陣所重建且未經特徵加權處理的親緣關係樹上各個節點之特徵變化98
附錄5:利用僅具有完整距陣所重建並經特徵加權處理的親緣關係樹上各個節點之特徵變化102
附錄6:不同特徵距陣中的特徵一致性指數(ci)與特徵修正指數(ri) 106
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