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研究生:江德曼
研究生(外文):Dramane Thiombiano
論文名稱:女企業家在布吉納法索:特性,動機,目標和難點
論文名稱(外文):Female Entrepreneurship in Burkina Faso: Characteristics, Motivations, Goals and Difficulties.
指導教授:安大衛
指導教授(外文):David Andersson
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:布吉那法索動機創業環境瓦加杜古特點女性創業
外文關鍵詞:Burkina FasoEntrepreneurshipOuagadougoudifficultiesfemale entrepreneurshipAfrican entrepreneurshipcharacteristicsmotivations
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“全球有一半的人口是女性“,“教育一位男性意指教育一個體;然而,教育一位女性等同於教育整個民族。“這兩句俗諺強調了女性在社會中所扮演的關鍵角色。非洲南撒哈拉地區的婦女在許多艱難的時刻裡(例如戰爭及自然災害)也以其關鍵角色著稱。例如在經濟危機時,兒童營養不良及男性失去主要收入來源時,也往往傾向尋求自己妻子或母親的支持。因而藉由提供婦女創業機會,賦予女性權力。這種機會對婦女本身超出了內在價值,此權力可能對家庭,社區和國家的經濟有深遠的影響,。
本文研究的對象為非洲南撒哈拉地區(特別針對布吉納法索)近年來日趨增加的女性企業家。在ㄧ個傳統上以男性主導及狹義性別角色為主的地區中,有越來越多的婦女選擇投入創業這個領域。而這些婦女的深層動機為何?什麼是他們的社會和人口特徵是?什麼是他們所面對的主要問題?本研究的目的即在以布吉納法索女性企業家的第一手訪談資料闡述此一現象。研究成果可以提供想多了解西非女性企業的布吉納法索的投資者一個方向;對創業及發展相關的公共政策上也有助益。
關鍵詞:女性創業 , 創業環境, 動機, 特點, 布吉那法索, 瓦加杜古
“Half of the world’s population is female;” “Educating a man means educating an individual however, educating a woman equals educating the whole nation.” These common sayings underscore the critical roles women play in society. In sub-Saharan Africa, women are known to play crucial roles in difficult times such as wars and natural disasters. In economic crises, when children are at risk of malnourishment and many men lose their main sources of income, they tend to turn towards their wives and/or mothers for support. Therefore, the empowerment of women - by giving them the opportunity to start a business - goes beyond the intrinsic value this has for the women themselves. Such empowerment may have profound impacts on families, communities, and national economies.
The aim of this research is to study female entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on Burkina Faso, which is a region of the world where female entrepreneurship has been increasing in recent years. Traditionally a male-dominated area with narrowly prescribed gender roles, entrepreneurship is becoming the domain of choice for an increasing number of women.
What are the deep motivations of these women? What are their social and demographic characteristics? What are the main issues they are facing?
The empirical study was conducted on a sample of 45 female entrepreneurs. Therefore, a self-administered questionnaire of 35 questions with 32 closed questions was used to measure the female entrepreneurs’ profile in terms of characteristics, motivations, and difficulties encountered. The results indicated that the female entrepreneur in Burkina Faso is usually a young and married woman (30-39 years old) whose area of business evolves around commerce, hairdressing, decorations, seam stressing, and dyestuffs, activities that are similar to those women generally performed at home. Psychologically, the female entrepreneur possesses a strong internal locus of control concerning the success or failure of her business venturing.
In fact, she believes that she is artisan of her own destiny, and usually does not associate the success or failure of her firm to destiny and chance. Concerning the motives, women are primarily motivated by the need for economic independence, the need to make a living, the need for self-accomplishment and self-realization. The study also indicated that the difficulties faced by these women are mainly financial, and then comes the difficulty to have access to adequate equipment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
AKNOWLEGEMENTS iii
ABSTRACT iv
摘要 vi
LIST OF FIGURES xi
LIST OF TABLES xiii
INTRODUCTION: Research Background 1
Chapter I: OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH 4
1.1. Research Problems 4
1.1.1. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development 4
1.1.2. Role-played by Women in the Development of 6
Entrepreneurship
1.1.3. Potential for Female Entrepreneurship 8
1.1.3.1. In Industrialized Countries 9
1.1.3.2. In Developing Countries 9
1.1.4. Relevance of the Study 9
1.2. Burkina Faso as a Specific Case 10
1.2.1. Brief Introduction to Burkina Faso 10
1.2.2. Problem Statement 13
1.3. Research Question 14
1.4. Research Objectives 14
Chapter II: LITERATURE REVIEW 15
2.1. Conceptual Elucidation 15
2.1.1. Concept of Entrepreneurship 15
2.1.2. Concept of Female Entrepreneurship 20
2.1.2.1. Characteristics of Female Entrepreneurship in Africa 24
- Demographic Characteristics 24
- Previous Job Experience 25
- Funding Sources 25
- Motivations 26
- Difficulties Faced by Female Entrepreneurs 27

Chapter III: RESEARCH METHOD 29
3.1. Research Framework 29
3.2. Population and Sample 32
3.2.1. Surveyed Population 32
3.2.2. Sampling Method 33
3.3. Data Collection’s Tool 33
3.4. Data Collection 34
3.5. General Framework of the Research 35
3.5.1. Introduction to the Surveyed Milieu 35
3.5.1.1. Geography, Climate, Population 35
3.5.1.2. Economy and Politic 36
3.6. The Study Field 37
Chapter IV: RESEARCH RESULTS 39
4.1. Result Analysis 39
4.1.1. The Entrepreneur: Characteristics 39
4.1.1.1. Personality Profile 39
- Age 40
- Marital Status 41
- Number of Children 42
- Education Level 43
- Religion Practiced 44
- Self-confidence 44
- Family History 45
4.1.1.2. Activity Profile 46
- Entrepreneurs Training 46
- Previous Job 47
- First Start-up 48
4.1.1.3. Motivations 49
- Economic Motivations 49
- Need for Achievement 50
- Motivation by Age 50
- Other Factors 52
4.1.2. Characteristics of the Enterprises 53
4.1.2.1. Type of Activity 53
4.1.2.2. Year of Business 54
4.1.2.3. Number of Employees 54
4.1.3. Relation with the Environment 56
4.1.3.1. Origin of the Business Idea 56
4.1.3.1.1. The Entrepreneur Herself 56
4.1.3.1.2. The Husband 57
4.1.3.1.3. The Family 58
4.1.3.1.4. Friends 59
4.1.3.2. Support Received 60
4.1.3.2.1. Financial Support 60
4.1.3.2.2. Information Support 61
4.1.3.2.3. Moral Support 62
4.1.3.2.4. Relation With the Other Entrepreneurs 63 4.1.3.2.5. Type of Assistance Offices Consulted 64
4.1.3.2.6.The Funding Sources of the Firm 65
4.1.3.3. Difficulties Faced by Women Entrepreneurs 66
4.1.3.3.1. Social Obligations 66
- Income Expenditure 66
- Conflict Between Social Activities and the Firm 67
- Household Cores 68
- Perception of the Entrepreneur 68
4.1.3.3.2. Other Difficulties 69
4.2. Comments Provided by the Women During the Survey 69
Chapter V: IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION 72
5.1. Conclusion 72
5.2. Discussion 72
5.2.1. Characteristics of the Entrepreneur 72
5.2.2. Characteristics of the Enterprise 73
5.2.3. Relation with the Environment 74
5.3. Limitations 75
5.4. Future Research 75 APPENDIX A 76
APPENDIX B 83
APPENDIX C 95
BIBLIOGRAPHY 98















































LIST OF FIGURES

Page
Figure 1. Map of BF 38
Figure 2. Entrepreneurs by Age 40
Figure 3. Entrepreneurs by Marital Status 41
Figure 4. Entrepreneurs by Number of Children 42
Figure 5. Entrepreneurs According to the Education Level 43
Figure 6. Entrepreneurs According to the Religion Practiced 44
Figure 7. Perception of the Firm’s Success 83
Figure 8. Presence of Entrepreneurs in the Surroundings 45
Figure 9. Relation Between Type of Training and Current Activity 46
Figure 10. Entrepreneurs by Previous Job 47
Figure 11. Entrepreneurs by Number of Firms Possessed 48
Figure 12. The Entrepreneur Contribution to the Business Idea 56
Figure 13. The Husband Contribution to the Business Idea 57
Figure 14. The Family Contribution to the Business Idea 58
Figure 15. Friends Contribution to the Business Idea 59
Figure 16. Entrepreneurs by Financial Support 60
Figure 17. Entrepreneurs by Information Support 61
Figure 18. Entrepreneurs by Moral Support 62
Figure 19. Entrepreneurs by Female Promotion
and Other Assistance Services Consulted 64

Figure 20. Funding Sources of the Firm 83
Figure 21. Own Expenses 66
Figure 22. Support Family Members 66
Figure 23. Conflict Between Social Activity and the Enterprise 83
Figure 24. Household Cores 68
Figure 25. Perception of the Female Entrepreneur 83
Figure 26. Other Difficulties 83
Chart 1. Model for Analysis 30


















LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 1. Data Collection Results 35
Table 2. Entrepreneurs by Economic Motivations 49
Table 3. Entrepreneurs by Need for Achievement 50
Table 4. Relation Between Age and Motivation of Entrepreneurs 76
Table 5. Other Factors 52
Table 6. Entrepreneurs by Type of Activity 53
Table 7. Entrepreneurs by Years of Business 54
Table 8. Entrepreneurs by Number of Employees 54
Table 9. Relation Among Female Entrepreneurs 63
Table 10. Statistical Test 76
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