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研究生:賴奇祿
研究生(外文):Chi-Lu Lai
論文名稱:孟德斯鳩與魁奈對於傳統中國專制政府思想之比較──一個方法論的反省
論文名稱(外文):A Contrast between Montesquieu’s and Quesnay’s Thoughts of China Despotism — A Methodological Reflection
指導教授:曾國祥曾國祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Roy Tseng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:218
中文關鍵詞:魁奈重農學派典範不可共量孟德斯鳩專制政府中國專制政府開明專制孔恩自然科學研究方法理論負載
外文關鍵詞:incommensurablePhysiocracyThomas S. KuhnDespotismChina Despotismnatural science methodologyFrançois QuesnayMontesquieutheory ladenenlightened despotismparadigm
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本文主要比較孟德斯鳩與魁奈對於傳統中國專制政府思想研究之差異。析論孟德斯鳩與魁奈如何論證與觀察傳統中國專制政府,兩人憑藉的方法論與認識論為何?評判政府制度的價值標準為何?藉以描繪孟德斯鳩與魁奈眼中傳統中國政府的樣貌?孟德斯鳩是十八世紀啟蒙運動思想家中少數對於當時中國政府有專門著述討論者;儘管孟德斯鳩在其《論法的精神》一書中探討的中國政府是否足以為其專制政府理論的代表?其本人在不少地方即顯出自相矛盾之處,然多數是持負面的態度與看法。本文主要從孟德斯鳩對於傳統中國專制政府之經驗歸納的研究方法、實證的認識論與本體論之角度對於孟德斯鳩傳統中國專制政府理論做一深入的分析與探討。與此同時,啟蒙運動思想家中有另外一派的人關於當時中國政府理論與制度卻有不同的看法,主要以重農學派的魁奈(Francois Quesnay)在其《中華帝國的專制制度》一書為代表,其對於中國政府的看法持正面的肯定居多。面對同樣關於傳教士、旅行家與商人們紀錄當時中國的經驗事實資料,在同樣宣稱自然科學研究方法的立場下,魁奈卻提出與孟德斯鳩迥然不同的觀點與思考方式,對此一有趣的問題,本文將對此有一詳細的研究與評述。
孟德斯鳩與魁奈探討傳統中國專制政府所採取的自然科學研究方法與認識立場,這樣的研究方法與認識立場是否更為鞏固其藉以評判傳統中國專制政府的價值標準?在其宣稱客觀中立之經驗歸納的研究方法與經驗實證的認識立場是否在其背後已有某種的價值預設存在?孟德斯鳩與魁奈從其研究方法與認識立場所鞏固的價值標準是否剛好坐實某種西方中心主義的立場?藉著所謂客觀中立的經驗歸納研究方法與經驗實證的認識立場之名,實則貶抑或拒斥其他非西方文化價值評判標準的可能?因為其他非西方文化的價值標準可能無法從其所謂客觀中立的研究方法與認識立場所證成?本文將借用Thomas S. Kuhn「典範」與「不可共量」的等概念從方法論的角度,對此有一深入的反省。
如果孟德斯鳩對於傳統中國專制政府理論的論證,可以作為當前西方文化主體的代表;則魁奈對於傳統中國專制政府的觀察是否代表在西方文化的基礎上,存在著不同的價值,因而願意欣賞不同社群的價值標準與政府理論,但這樣的價值標準與政府理論是否為近代中國知識份子所忽略?則是值得吾人深思與反省的重要問題。

關鍵字:孟德斯鳩、魁奈、重農學派、專制政府、開明專制、中國專制政府、自然科學研究方法、理論負載、孔恩、典範、不可共量
This dissertation aims to contrast the differences between Montesquieu’s and Quesnay’s thoughts of China Despotism theory, to analyze the methodology and epistemology used by the two scholars to demonstrate and observe traditional China despotism, and, to expound and examine the description of traditional China despotism in Montesquieu’s and Quesnay’s thoughts. Montesquieu was a rare one among Enlightenment philosophers who profoundly discussed China Despotism in the eighteenth century. In the elaboration of Montesquieu’s China Despotism, there were lots of contradictions in De L''espirt Des Lois. Traditional China government was depreciated by him. From the empirical induce methodology, positivism epistemology and ontology’s point of view, this dissertation tries to deeply analyze and research Montesquieu‘s China Despotism. At the time, there were also some Enlightenment Philosophers who have a different view of China Despotism. The representative was a Physiocrat – Francois Quesnay. In his Le Despotisme De La Chine, he marked traditional China government positively. Quesnay, who developed his view based on the same empirical facts about traditional China according to the eighteenth century’s Jesuits, travelers and businessmen and with the same natural science methodology, had totally different views and thoughts about China Despotism from Montesquieu. This dissertation has a detailed study and review on these differences.
Questions will be explored in this dissertation are as below. Did the natural science methodology and epistemology of Montesquieu’s and Quesnay’s China Despotism strengthen the judgment of how they valued traditional China government? Were there pre-judgments in their so-called neutral and objective denouncement about the way they researched China Despotism in the empirical induce methodology and epistemology? Were Montesquieu’s and Quesnay’s judgments about China Depotism enhanced by the natural science methodology and epistemology a kind of western centralism? Did they, in the name of neutral and objective empirical induce methodology and epistemology that could not reason non-western value, refuse and devaluate other non-western value? This dissertation has a deeply reflection on these from the “paradigm” and “incommensurable” methodological concepts of Thomas S. Kuhn’s.
If Montesquieu’s China Despotism was the main point of western culture, was the way Quesnay observed traditional China government presenting a different value in the west culture and there were still some admiring this kind of value? Was this kind of evaluation neglected by recent Chinese intellects? This is a serious problem worthy of reconsideration and reflection.

Keywords: Montesquieu, François Quesnay, Physiocracy, Despotism, enlightened despotism, China Despotism, natural science methodology, theory laden, Thomas S. Kuhn, paradigm, incommensurable
目錄
第一章 前言 1
第一節 研究動機與研究目的 1
一、研究動機 1
二、研究目的 6
第二節 文獻探討、研究限制與章節安排 8
ㄧ、文獻探討與研究限制 8
二、章節安排 13
第三節 論證基礎 19
第二章 時代背景與思想淵源 27
第一節 孟德斯鳩與魁奈的時代背景 27
一、自然科學研究方法的影響 27
二、「理性」的意義 33
第二節 孟德斯鳩與魁奈專制政府觀點的思想淵源 38
第三節 小結 45
第三章 孟德斯鳩對於傳統中國專制政府之論證 47
第一節 研究方法的建立 48
一、自然科學研究方法的影響──經驗實證的研究 49
二、笛卡兒式理性主義的影響──邏輯演繹的推理 55
第二節 政府的性質與原則 60
一、個人意志的統治 60
二、恐怖統治的服從原則 62
第三節 政府與社會的關係 70
一、培養奴隸特質的教育 70
二、程序與內涵簡化的法律 71
三、政治自由的闕如 73
第四節 小結 85
第四章 魁奈對於傳統中國專制政府之觀察 87
第一節 研究方法的建立 88
一、自然法傳統的影響──邏輯演繹的論證 89
二、自然科學研究方法的影響──生物學的類比 95
第二節 政府的性質與原則 101
一、開明專制的統治 109
二、倫理道德的治理原則 115
第三節 政府與社會的關係 117
一、理性塑造的教育 117
二、倫理原則與健全制度的法律 119
三、政府控制的自由經濟 121
第四節 小結 129
第五章 對於孟德斯鳩與魁奈論證的幾個批判 131
第一節 研究方法的質疑 131
一、邏輯演繹的循環論證與歸納邏輯的休謨懷疑 131
二、自然科學研究方法的限制與錯置 140
第二節 政府性質與原則的探討 154
一、孟德斯鳩權力制衡與魁奈政府效率的價值對比 158
二、孟德斯鳩恐怖統治的循環論證與魁奈權力因素影響的忽略 162
第三節 政府與社會關係的分析 166
一、孟德斯鳩「禮教」的奴隸教育特質與魁奈「禮教」之自然情感的理性認識 166
二、孟德斯鳩維護貴族特權的法律與魁奈道德及政治合一的實在法 169
三、孟德斯鳩權力制衡體現的自由價值與魁奈政府效率展現的安定價值 170
第四節 小結 177
第六章 結論 181
參考文獻 187
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1988 《中國歷代政治得失》。台北:東大圖書股份有限公司
戴炎輝
2000 《中國法制史》。台北:三民書局。
薩孟武
1991a 《中國社會政治史》(一)。台北:三民書局。
1991b 《中國社會政治史》(四)。台北:三民書局。
1992 《中國政治思想史》。台北:三民書局。
嚴復
1937 《孟德斯鳩法意》。上海:商務印書館。
二、期刊論文
王仲君
1998 〈”政府之手”:魁奈的國家干預論〉,《渭南師範學院學報》,15卷5期,頁19-23。
1999 〈利益機制與”政府之手”──魁奈的市場經濟運行模式理論〉,《經濟科學》,5期,頁123-128。
朱浤源
2004 〈孟德斯鳩、韋伯、費正清與中國史研究的新方向及發現〉,《興大歷史學報》,15期,頁139-162。
朱靜
2002 〈孟德斯鳩的”中國印象”之印象〉,《復旦學報》,2期,頁86-92。
李禹价與冀伯祥
2007 〈”重農”與”困農”──評魁奈對中國古代重農思想的認識〉,《重慶師範大學學報》,3期,頁5-10。
何解定
1999 〈評魁奈的重農主義思想〉,《零陵師範高等專科學校學報》,20卷2期,頁25-28。
周憲文
1977a 〈孟德斯鳩(Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu 1689-1755)年譜〉,《東方雜誌》,11卷1期,頁33-38。
1977b 〈François Quesnay年譜(1694-1774)〉,《臺灣經濟金融月刊》,13卷11期,頁55-59 。
曾國祥
2004,〈社會科學的經驗主義危機〉,《政治學報》,38期,頁171-213。
陳俊龍
2002 〈魁奈經濟政策之探討〉,《東吳經濟商學學報》,36期,頁1-21。
薛世平
2002 〈一個對孟德斯鳩有深刻影響的莆田人──黃嘉略〉,《福建師範大學福清分校學報》,54期,頁15-17。
曹希岭與曾光梅
2007 〈孟德斯鳩論東方專制主義〉,《魯東大學學報》,24卷4期,頁14-17。
曹希岭
2004 〈孟德斯鳩對東西方政體與法制的比較研究〉,《河北法學》,22卷1期,頁12-15。
黃忠晶
2004 〈孟德斯鳩論中國政體〉,《天中學刊》,19卷3期,頁46-48。
2007 〈孟德斯鳩論中國的德政〉,《遼東學院學到》,9卷2期,頁46-48-。
龔鵬程
2001 〈孟德斯鳩的中國觀〉,《國際論壇》,2期,頁1-51。
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