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研究生:梅普開
研究生(外文):Pu-kai Mei
論文名稱:台灣周邊海域毛顎類群聚之季節動態與水文環境間之相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):The seasonal dynamics of chaetognath assemblages in relation to hydrographic factors in the waters surrounding Taiwan
指導教授:羅文增
指導教授(外文):Wen-Tseng Lo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物科技暨資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:台灣毛顎季節動態生長期體長水文
外文關鍵詞:body lengthstageseasonalhydrographicTaiwanchaetognath
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本研究旨在探討2005年一月至2006年七月期間台灣周邊海域毛顎類之種類組成及數量分布,並進一步瞭解環境因子對其群聚動態分布的影響。台灣周邊海域在不同季節會受到不同季風及水團的影響,冬季西北部海域受到低溫低鹽之大陸沿岸流支配,夏季時台灣海峽受到南海表層流北上的影響而呈現高溫低鹽的狀態,至於台灣東部海域終年有黑潮水經過,而呈現著高溫高鹽的環境,但是2006年七月因為有三個颱風先後侵襲台灣,使該季沿岸測站因較多的陸源淡水注入導致鹽度降低。本研究共鑑定出四科十四屬二十八種毛顎類,平均豐度為475 ± 35 ind./100m3,豐度呈明顯的季節變化,以冬春季豐度較低,夏秋季豐度較高。前七優勢種依序為Flaccisagitta enflata、Serratosagitta pacifica、Zonosagitta littoralis、Pterosagitta draco、Aidanosagitta regularis、Aidanosagitta bedfordii及Aidanosagitta neglecta,合計佔總豐度的85%。台灣周邊海域的毛顎類分布趨勢明顯受到水團特性的影響,西北部大陸沿岸流所經過之海域,有著豐度高但是種類數及種歧異度較低的現象,而東部及南部黑潮水支配之海域卻呈現出完全相反的趨勢。由相關性分析結果得知,毛顎類總豐度及第一優勢種F. enflata的豐度和橈足類豐度呈正相關,顯示出食物的多寡可能也是影響毛顎類分布的因素之一。第二優勢種S. pacifica和水文及生物因子均無顯著相關,第三優勢種Z. littoralis和溫鹽度皆呈負相關,加上指示種分析結果顯示,或許能做為大陸沿岸流的指示生物。前三優勢種的生長期在各季皆以第一期(Stage I)最多,其他生長期的數量明顯較少。F. enflata及S. pacifica的平均體長(Average Body Length, ABL)呈春季較大,秋季較小的明顯季節變化,Z. littoralis則以冬夏季較大,春秋季較小。不同水團的環境對毛顎類之平均生長期(Weight Mean Stage, WMS)及平均體長分布亦有所影響,如發育程度相當的F. enflata及S. pacifica在黑潮水中體型會較大陸沿岸流大,而喜好冷水的Z. littoralis卻呈現完全相反的趨勢。此外,本研究發現毛顎類豐度、種類數、種歧異度、WMS及ABL並無明顯的日夜差異,而台灣周邊海域各季節不同的水團消長應是影響毛顎類群聚分布的重要因素。
This study aims to study the species composition and distribution of chaetognaths in the waters surrounding Taiwan January 2005 to July 2006, and to explore the relationship between environmental factors and their dynamic distribution. Waters surrounding Taiwan are affected by monsoons and water masses. In winter, the northwestern Taiwan area is under the impact of low-temperature low-salinity China Coastal Current, but in summer, Taiwan Strait is affected by South China Sea Current going northward with high-temperature and high-salinity. As for eastern waters of Taiwan, Kuroshio current passes throughout the year so it is high-temperature and high-salinity. In July 2006, when three typhoons struck Taiwan, excessive fresh water from land flowed into the ocean and stations along the coast where low in salinity. This study identified a total of 28 species of chaetognath under 14 genera of 4 families, with average abundance at 475 ± 35 ind./100m3, which shows an obvious change related to seasons, relatively low in winter and spring and high in summer and fall. The seven most dominant species are: Flaccisagitta enflata, Serratosagitta pacifica, Zonosagitta littoralis, Pterosagitta draco, Aidanosagitta regularis, Aidanosagitta bedfordii and Aidanosagitta neglecta, accounting for 85% of the total abundance. The distribution of chaetognath in waters surrounding Taiwan is affected by the different water masses. The northwestern area where China Coastal Current passes through has high abundance but less number and low Shannon diversity index, but the eastern and southern waters dominated by Kuroshio current shows a completely different trend. From the results of multiple regression analysis, it is found that the abundance of chaetognath and F. enflata are in positive correlation with that of the abundance of copepod, indicating that the quantity of food might be a factor affecting the distribution of chaetognath. The second dominant species S. pacifica has no relation with hydrographic or biological factors, and the third dominant species Z. littoralis is in negative correlation with temperature and salinity. Along with the results of indicator species analysis, Z. littoralis can possibly be used as indicators species of China Coastal Current. The three predominant species are dominated by the Stage I and significantly less in other growth stages. The average body lengths (ABL) of F. enflata and S. pacifica are the larger in spring and smaller in fall, with obvious changes with seasons, but that of Z. littoralis is larger in winter and summer and smaller in spring and fall. Different water masses have impacts on distribution of weight mean stage (WMS) and ABL of chaetognath; for example, F. enflata and S. pacifica with the equivalent growth have larger bodies in Kuroshio current than in China Coastal Current, but Z. littoralis which prefers cold water shows an opposite trend. In addition, this study found that abundance, species, Shannon diversity index, WMS and ABL of chaetognath has no differences between day and night, but the succession of water masses in waters surrounding Taiwan may be an important factor affecting the distribution patterns of chaetognaths.
摘要...............................................................................................I
Abstract ......................................................................................III
目錄..............................................................................................V
表目錄........................................................................................VII
圖目錄.........................................................................................IX
附錄目錄....................................................................................XII
壹、前言......................................................................................1
1-1 台灣水文環境.......................................................................1
1-2 毛顎類簡介...........................................................................2
1-3 台灣附近海域毛顎類之研究回顧.......................................4
1-4 研究目的...............................................................................5
貳、材料與方法..........................................................................6
2-1 採樣時間及地點...................................................................6
2-2 水文資料的採集...................................................................6
2-3 浮游動物資料的採集和處理...............................................6
2-4 資料分析...............................................................................7
參、結果....................................................................................10
3-1 水文環境的季節變化.........................................................10
3-2 毛顎類種類組成.................................................................11
3-3 毛顎類豐度、種類數、種歧異度的分布及季節變化.....11
3-4 水文因子的測站群集分析.................................................13
3-5 毛顎類豐度的測站群集分析.............................................15
3-6 毛顎類的種類群集分析.....................................................18
3-7 毛顎類與環境因子之相關性分析.....................................18
3-8 不同水團的毛顎類指示種.................................................19
3-9 毛顎類生長期的季節分布.................................................19
3-10 毛顎類體長的季節分布...................................................21
3-11 毛顎類的日週性分布.......................................................23
肆、討論....................................................................................24
4-1 水文環境因子的探討.........................................................24
4-2 毛顎類的種類組成的探討.................................................25
4-3 毛顎類時空分布的探討.....................................................28
4-4 毛顎類生長期與體長的探討.............................................29
伍、結論....................................................................................32
陸、參考文獻............................................................................34
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