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研究生:賴昶宇
研究生(外文):Chang-yu Lai
論文名稱:台灣東部海域立方水母(Carybdearastonii)之生態研究
論文名稱(外文):Ecological study of the box jellyfish, Carybdea rastonii (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), in the coastal waters of eastern Taiwan
指導教授:羅文增
指導教授(外文):Wen-Tseng Lo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物科技暨資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:缽水母葉狀體立方水母
外文關鍵詞:box jellyscyphomedusaepedalium
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本研究於2007年至2009年間探討台灣東部海域立方水母(Carybdea rastonii)之生態特徵,由短期活體飼養觀察、樣本的鏡檢與形質測量來了解C. rastonii行為活動方式、細部形態特徵及其生理因子間之相關性,並由連續採集推測族群動態變化;此外,亦估算C. rastonii於一天中消耗及需要之碳量,以推測其族群對當地環境生態之影響。由形態及行為觀察結果發現,C. rastonii在不同體型及性別個體之葉狀體(pedalium)組織邊緣皆具有點狀色斑之徵狀;在攝食過程中泳動方式呈垂直移動,不同於平常較水平之狀態;夜間時個體會棲息於水層底部休息或隨水流漂動。研究發現採集之水母樣本其對角傘徑範圍介於4.17至46.39 mm,對角傘徑可作為區別個體間存活時間長短之依據,並與排水體積、濕重、乾重及平衡石長度之間呈顯著之相關性。利用族群體長組成推測,2008年7月至9月間有第二個族群世代的發生;另外由平衡石長度與對角傘徑之相關性,發現颱風擾動前水母個體對角傘徑長度大於受擾動後之個體。在胃內容物分析發現立方水母空胃率為63.09 %,主要攝食對象為甲殼綱動物(68.79 %),而其食性會隨生長階段有轉移的現象。由攝食獵物組成與C. rastonii族群密度(28 ind m-3)推估,族群消耗碳量為20.77 mg m-3 d-1,耗氧量為0.126μmol O2 h-1 mg DW-1 (27 ℃);與其它種類缽水母於相似溫度作比較,發現C. rastonii有較高之代謝需求量。而水母族群對碳需求量約為39.40至47.77 mg C m-3 d-1,然而這樣的數據對於利用視覺作掠食的C. rastonii而言仍然低估。由該水母族群對碳之消耗及需求量與夏季台灣南部黑潮海域所測得之初級生產力(7.6 mg C m-3 d-1)作比較,本研究認為C. rastonii族群於夏季大量的出現,對於當地生態系統的影響應是頗為顯著的,為一重要之掠食者。
This study investigated the ecological characteristics of the box jelly, Carybdea rastonii, in the waters off eastern Taiwan from 2007 to 2009. We started from field net sampling and some basic morphometric analysis to study its population dynamics, and continued with gut-content analysis, digestion rate and respiration rate experiments to estimate on the energy budget of C. rastonii, as well as its ecological significance in this region. We found the spots around the margin of pedelium through all samples, suggesting a stable morphological character of this species. Some specific behaviors were also observed, including the vertical movement after feeding and resting behavior (either lying on the bottom or drifting with the flow) during nighttime. Diagonal bell width (DBW) of C. rastonii was used as the size parameter, ranging from 4.17 to 46.39 mm in the collected samples, and was of significant positive-correlation with volume, wet weight, dry weight, and the length of statolith, suggesting DBW as a good indicator in age-determine. Weekly population structures indicated at least two peaks of strobilation occurring during the sampling period in 2008. Further analysis on the potential impact from environmental perturbation, by comparing the values of DBW with the length of the specimens taken immediately before and after typhoon attack, suggested a potential starvation effect on the local population. Results from gut-content analysis indicated a high percentage of empty guts (63.09%) in the checked specimens, having crustacean as the most dominant prey (up to 68.79%), and a diet shift to more larval fish from larger individuals. Based on the results from gut-content analysis and digestion rates on different types of prey, the estimated population carbon intake of C. rastonii (at 28 ind m-3) was about 20.77 mg m-3 d-1. However, results from respiration rate experiments suggested a higher basic metabolic demand of the box jelly (up to 0.126μmol O2 h-1 mgDW-1, at 27℃), which is significantly higher than other scyphomedusae of similar temperature range. According to the need of metabolism, the demand of carbon intake was estimated at 39.40 to 47.77 mg C m-3 d-1, an amount that might be under estimated for this voracious predator. Based on the estimated high values from both feeding and physiological demand, compared to the much lower primary production rate of 7.6 mg C m-3 d-1 in the Kuroshio waters, we concluded that C. rastonii as an important predator in this region, especially during its blooming seasons.
目錄
章次 頁數
中文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------------------ I
英文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------------------ III
目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ V
表目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VIII
圖目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IX
附表目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------ XII
附圖目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------ XIII
壹 前言-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1. 1 立方水母的分類地位及形態介紹-------------------------------------- 1
1. 2 水母的生態地位及其重要性-------------------------------------------- 2
1. 3 立方水母棲地與分布----------------------------------------------------- 3
1. 4 研究區域之選擇----------------------------------------------------------- 4
1. 5 相關文獻回顧與研究目的----------------------------------------------- 4
貳 材料與方法----------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
2. 1 採樣時間與地點----------------------------------------------------------- 6
2. 2 採樣方式及樣品處理----------------------------------------------------- 6
2. 3 立方水母形質測量------------------------------------------------------- 8
2. 4 平衡石長徑量測----------------------------------------------------------- 9
2. 5 平衡石研磨及輪圈計數之方式----------------------------------------- 9
2. 6 飢餓實驗-------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
2. 7 消化率測定----------------------------------------------------------------- 10
2. 8 族群動態之變化----------------------------------------------------------- 11
2. 9 耗氧率測定----------------------------------------------------------------- 11
2.10 碳量之消耗---------------------------------------------------------------- 13
2. 11 C. rastonii之生態重要性----------------------------------------------- 14
2. 12 統計分析------------------------------------------------------------------ 14
參 結果-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
3. 1 外觀形態及行為能力----------------------------------------------------- 16
3. 2 形質測量-------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
3. 3 平衡石特性----------------------------------------------------------------- 17
3. 4 環境擾動對水母之影響-------------------------------------------------- 18
3. 5 胃內容物分析-------------------------------------------------------------- 19
3. 6 飢餓效應對體型之影響-------------------------------------------------- 20
3. 7 各類餌料消化速率-------------------------------------------------------- 21
3. 8 耗氧率之測定-------------------------------------------------------------- 21
3. 9 海域族群動態-------------------------------------------------------------- 22
3. 10 能量消耗及需求估算--------------------------------------------------- 22
肆 討論-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
4. 1 形質測量及觀察之探討-------------------------------------------------- 24
4. 2 族群動態變化-------------------------------------------------------------- 26
4. 3 平衡石之研究探討-------------------------------------------------------- 26
4. 4 攝食之探討----------------------------------------------------------------- 28
4. 5 消化速率及耗氧率研究之探討----------------------------------------- 29
4. 6 C. rastonii生物需求量及生態重要性---------------------------------- 30
伍 結論-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 33
陸 參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35
表--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42
圖--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45
附表------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 69
附圖------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 71

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