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研究生:林承佑
研究生(外文):Cheng-Yu Lin
論文名稱:台灣淡水河口仔稚魚之群聚結構及生命條碼在仔稚魚鑑種上之應用
論文名稱(外文):Temporal Distribution of Larval Fish Community in Tan-sui River Estuary, Taiwan, and the Application of Barcode Technique on the Fish Larva & Juvenile Identification.
指導教授:邵廣昭邵廣昭引用關係劉莉蓮
指導教授(外文):Kwang-Tsao ShaoLi-Lian Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:淡水河河口仔稚魚群聚鑑種生命條碼
外文關鍵詞:Tan-sui riverestuaryfish larvaeDNA barcodecommunityjuvenile
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本研究主要有三目的,第一為探討淡水地區仔稚魚之群聚組成及其與環境水文因子的相關性,並討比較該地區仔魚組成結構之長期變遷;第二為利用DNA 生命條碼之鑑種方法來比較其與傳統形態鑑定結果之異同;第三則是利用分子鑑定所確認之魚種,來了解究竟何種魚類利用淡水河口作為產卵孵育之場所及其利用河口之生活史類型。研究後發現淡水地區之仔稚魚群聚確有季節間的變化,而鮋科、鯷科、沙鮻科、鰕虎魚科及石首魚科等的入添為造成季節間群聚上差異的主要魚類。另群聚分布與多數環境因子皆有關,但整體而言以溫度較有關聯性。如與20餘年前的群聚結果作比較,了解淡水河口仔稚魚主要入添時機已包含春、秋或夏三季,且近五年累計採獲的魚科數為已達72科,遠高於20餘前年的31科,個體數也較高,顯示淡水河口的環境已較以往改善。COI序列的鑑種共取用96條樣本序列進行分析,不論形態鑑定的能力的高低差異,DNA分子鑑定均能提高鑑別力至更低的分類層級,分子鑑別成功率也高於形態鑑種能力,此顯示應用生命條碼方法確為輔助仔稚魚鑑定的有效工具;另統計後也發現形態鑑定出的類型數(type)均高於分子鑑定後的分類單元(taxa),此顯示仔稚魚的部份形態因發育階段變化較大且不穩定,不宜作為鑑別之依據,故仍需仰賴分子鑑定輔助以提升鑑種正確性。而經由分子鑑定確認之34種魚種,比較相關文獻可推斷部份魚類早期之生活史。研究結果顯示本地區仔稚魚群聚以「非依賴河口性海洋魚類」(nondependent marine fish)佔最大宗,其他為「依賴河口性海洋魚類」(dependent marine fish),另真河口性物種及洄游性物種,以形態鑑定亦發現可採獲相關類群,但這些類群因取樣誤差未能採獲其仔稚魚外,條碼資料庫的不完整亦為可能之原因,故未來持續累積序列資料庫,將更有助了解棲地對當地群聚結構所扮演的角色,對日後河口之管理及保育十分重要。
The main objectives of this study is to :(1)probe into relationship of larval fish communities and environmental water factor in Tan-sui River Estuary, and observe assemblages of larval fish within different time scale;(2)to compare the results of DNA barcode with mophorlogical identification in larval and juvenile;(3)conjecture the recruit phase & the early life cycles of DNA indentified fish groups associated estuaries in Tan-sui. It shows that recruitment family, such as Scorpaenidae, Engraulidae, Sciaenidae, Sillaginidae and Gobiidae are the main fish have significant differences between larval fish community and the four seasons in Tan-sui estuary. Besides, statistical informations show community distribution and most environmental factors have significant differences, but temperature is the most. We compare the communities of twenty years ago, spring, autumn or summer are the opportune time of recruitment, 72 and 31 families of fish larvae were collected over past five and twenty years ago respectively, it shows that Tan-sui estuarine environment have been improved. We used 96 COI sequences in DNA indetification. Comparing the results of specimens identification between DNA barcoding and different morphological resolution power, DNA barcoding could up to the lower level than the tradiontional way. And after counting, the success rate of DNA identification was higher than different morphological resolving power;the numbers of mophological type are higher than the taxa after DNA indetification, it means that many morphological characters are not constant in early developmental stage, and DNA barcoding can be a useful tool to assist in promoting the success rate of the traditional way. Comparing with references, 34 indentified by DNA Barcode can conjecture recruit phase & early life cycles, most of these specimens are categorized to「nondependent marine fish」, and the others are「dependent marine fish」, but in fact, some of「true estuarine」、「feshwater」and 「diadromous」species can be indetified by morphology, it was due to the incompletion of the sequence database or sampling error. We should be able to understand the early life history of fish and the role of local habitat for the resources conservation and managenment in the future as long as we collect more complete COI database.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 i
表目錄 ii
第一章 前言 1
第二章 材料與方法 7
一、仔稚魚群聚 7
(一) 採樣地點及方法 7
(二) 標本之處理與保存 7
(三) 種類的鑑定 7
(四) 發育階段 8
(五) 水文資料 9
(六) 單位豐度轉換 9
(七) 資料分析 9
二、DNA分子鑑定與人為鑑種能力分析 11
(一) 種類的形態鑑定 11
(二) 樣本的選用及方法 11
(三) 去氧核醣核酸(DNA)之萃取 11
(四) DNA 引子(Primers) 13
(五) 聚合酶連鎖反應(PCR) 13
(六) 電泳(Electrophoresis) 14
(七) DNA定序(Sequencing) 14
(八) 種類判定 14
(九) 資料分析 15
(十) 生活史類型的判定 15
第三章 結果 17
一、仔稚魚群聚的時空分布 17
(一) 水文環境因子之季節差異 17
(二) 仔稚魚於季節間、離岸遠近、豐度與群聚變化 17
二、利用粒線體DNA之COI序列鑑定仔魚種屬類別與應用 23
(一) 仔魚序列與成魚資料庫序列比對結果 23
(二) 季節入添的魚種與其利用河口之生活史類型 24
(三) DNA分子鑑定與人為形態鑑定之結果 26
(四) DNA分子鑑定之鑑別力 26
(五) 形態之鑑定之成功率 27
第四章 討論 28
一、仔稚魚群聚與環境因子之關係 28
二、淡水海域仔稚魚群聚組成及季節變化之20年前後比較 28
三、DNA生命條碼與人為鑑別力比較 29
四、經分子鑑定確認之部分魚種之早期生活史及其時空分布 31
第五章 結論 36
參考文獻 38
附錄 77

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