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研究生:胡訓群
研究生(外文):Hsun-Chun Hu
論文名稱:台灣DRAM產業經營發展策略之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study of the business strategy of Taiwan DRAM industry
指導教授:溫金豐溫金豐引用關係黃北豪黃北豪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jin-Feng UenPei Hao Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:高階經營碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:產業生命週期動態隨機存取記憶體策略聯盟
外文關鍵詞:Industry Life CycleStrategic AllianceDRAM
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臺灣的動態隨機存取記憶體(Dynamic Random Access Memory, DRAM)產業發展,起始是從國外引進技術建置晶圓廠,藉著為技術母廠代工的機會,逐步的擴建產能,追求全球DRAM市場佔有率的提升,進入全球DRAM產業世代交替的年代,在有12吋廠的廠商才有機會在市場上競爭的環境下,投入大量資金建廠,使產能大幅的成長。

然而2008年開始全球的金融海嘯,使得半導體景氣持續低迷,DRAM產業經歷了史上最慘烈的崩盤情況,造成全球大多數的DRAM廠商皆虧損連連,並且無多餘資金進行製程的更新,過去台灣DRAM產業以舉債的方式擴充12吋晶圓廠產能,而擴大了經營規模,但是過度舉債的結果,台灣4家DRAM廠合計高達新台幣3,000億元的鉅額負債,這次的全球金融海嘯,幾乎摧毀了台灣的DRAM產業。

對於台灣DRAM產業所面臨前所未有的困境,政府提出產業再造方案,希望能夠藉此機會調整產業結構,擺脫以往脆弱的營運模式,提升未來的國際競爭力,隨著2009年第三季半導體需求逐漸回溫,DRAM的價格開始反彈上升,DRAM廠商的財務問題開始獲得解決,產業再造也宣告破局而失敗,但是從永續發展的觀點,台灣廠商的發展仍舊以代工製造為主,始終缺乏競爭力。

雖然DRAM價格的上升,使得國內DRAM廠商逐漸轉虧為盈,廠商或許可以幸運的渡過此波危機,但結構性的問題未解,景氣一旦反轉,業者與政府未來恐將再面臨相同的困境。當DRAM產業再次面臨景氣低迷時,是否應該急流勇退?政府是否還應該介入?並在適當的時機進行產業的整併,本研究將分析DRAM產業生命週期的變動過程、經營模式的變遷、策略聯盟及未來發展趨勢,並針對台灣DRAM產業所面臨的競爭環境,進行經營策略之分析,希望對於各DRAM廠商未來發展策略能提供參考。
Taiwan DRAM industry emerged on OEM basis, i.e. foundry manufactures based upon the technology authorized by the foreign owner. With the expansion of capacity, Taiwan DRAM industry has gradually increased its global market share. In particular, only those market players with 12”foundry, which requires hefty capital investment and can significantly increases capacity, are able to compete in the market.

The financial tsunami started in 2008, however, impacted severely on the global economy. DRAM industry could not immune from this, and the collapse was unprecedented. Majority of market players were suffering losses, and unable to afford the migration of manufacturing process. Taiwan players used to borrow to expand capacity. Four major Taiwan DRAM players carry an aggregate debt of TWD300 billion. Taiwan DRAM industry is almost destroyed by the high leverage during the financial tsunami.

Facing the unprecedented difficulty of DRAM industry, Taiwan government raised an industry re-engineering (or consolidation, whichever is appropriate) proposal with an aim to enhance the competitiveness in the global market through changes in industry structure and business operation. Thanks to the industry recovery stemmed in the third quarter of 2009, DRAM price started rebounding. The financial difficulty of DRAM players was been resolved. The government’s proposal for industry re-engineering was ended up with a failure.Taiwan DRAM players are still operating on OEM basis and lack of competitiveness in global market.

Though Taiwan DRAM players have turned profitable, benefited from price rebound, it is still a question mark that these players can survive in the long run. As long as the structural problem remains unsolved, the industry players and the government will face the same issue again in future. When the next recession is coming, whether Taiwan players shall exit the market, or Taiwan government shall step in? Whether the industry shall go through a consolidation? This paper will present the migration of DRAM industry life cycle, change of business model, strategic alliance, and industry trend in future, analyze on business strategies adopted by Taiwan DRAM players under the competitive environment. Hopefully, this paper could provide a reference as to the development of business strategy for Taiwan DRAM players.
論文審定書 i
論文提要 ii
致謝辭 iii
中文摘要 iv
英文摘要 vi
目錄 viii
表目錄 x
圖目錄 xi

第一章 緒論 01
第一節 研究背景與動機 01
第二節 研究目的 02
第三節 研究流程 03

第二章 文獻探討 05
第一節 產業生命週期理論 05
第二節 產業結構分析 08
第三節 產業群聚理論 10
第四節 資源基礎理論 17
第五節 策略聯盟 23

第三章 研究設計 32
第一節 研究方法 32
第二節 研究設計 33
第三節 研究範圍及限制 35

第四章 產業分析 36
第一節 產業發展歷程 36
第二節 產業特性 38
第三節 產業發展階段與各國DRAM產業之發展歷程 43
第四節 產業現況與策略聯盟 61
第五節 產業發展趨勢 77

第五章 研究結果與分析 83
第一節 研究結果 83
第二節 研究分析與探討 88

第六章 結論與建議 92
第一節 結論 92
第二節 建議 94
第三節 後續研究建議 96

參考文獻 98
一、中文部份 98
二、英文部份 99
三、網站部份 103

附錄一 104
附錄二 109
一、中文部份
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14. 陳俊吉 (1999),台灣半導體產業競爭優勢分析-以晶圓代工與動態隨機存取記憶體製造業,國立政治大學,企研所碩士論文。
15. 望熙貴 (2001),台灣半導體產業競爭策略的探討,國立中央大學資訊管理學系碩士在職專班研究所碩士論文。
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二、英文部份
1. Amit and Schoemaker (1993), “Strategic Assets and Organizational Rent”,Strategic Management Journal, Vol.14, pp.33-46.
2. Aulakh, P. S., Kotabe Massaki & Sahay Arvind (1996), Trust and Performance in Cross-Border Marketing Partnership: A Behavioral Approach, Journal of International Business Studies, Special Issue.
3. Badaracco (1991), The Knowledge Link: How Firms Compete Through Strategic Alliances, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
4. Barney J.B. (1991), “Firm Resources and sustained Competitive Advantage,” Journal of Management Science, 17, pp.99-120
5. Barney, J. B. (1997), Gaining and Sustaining Competitiev Advantage, N.Y., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, pp.284-313.
6. Bleeke and Ernst (1991), “The Way to Win in Cross-Border Alliances”, Harward Business Review, 69(6): pp.127-135.
7. Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. (1990), Scale and Scope-The Dynamics of IndustrialCapitalism, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University.
8. Collis D.J. (1991),”A Resource-base Analysis of Global Competition:The Case of the Bearings Industry”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol.12, pp.66-72
9. Collis and Montgomery (1995), “Competing on resources: strategy in the 1990s”, Harvard Business Review, Vol.73 (No.4), pp.110-135.
10. Coyne, K. P. (1996), Sustainable competitive advantage: What it is and what it isn’t. Business Horizons, pp.54-61.
11. D''AvenI, Richard A. (1994),Hypercompetition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Maneuvering,New York:Free Press.
12. Devlin & Bleackley (1988), Strategic Alliance: Guidelines for success. Long Range Planning, 21(5), pp.18–23.
13. Gersony, N. (1996), Sectoral effects on strategic alliance performance for new technology firms. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 7, 175-189.
14. Ginter (1998), “Marketing Segmentation, Product Differentiation, and Marketing Strategies”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51.
15. Grant (1991), The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage:Implications for Strategy Formulation, California Management Review, Spring, pp.114-135.
16. Hagedoom J. and Narula R. (1996), “Choosing Organization Models of Strategic Technology Partnering-International Sectoral Differences”, Journal of International Business Studies, pp.265-284.
17. Hamel, G., and C.K. Prahalad (1994), Competing for the Future, Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
18. Hill, C. W. L. & Jones, G. R. (1999), Strategic Management Theory, 3th ed, Houghton Mifflin Company.
19. Hofer, C. W., and D. E. Schendel (1978), Strategic Formulation: Analytical Concepts, St. Paul: West Publishing.
20. Itami, H. & Roehl, T. W. (1987), “Mobilizing Invisible Assets”, Combridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
21. Kanter, R. M. (1994), Collaborative Advantage: The Art of Alliances, Harvard Business Review, pp.96-108.
22. Killing (1983), P. Strategies for Joint Venture Success. New York: Jraeger.
23. Kogut (1988), Joint Ventures: Theoretical and empirical perspectives, Strategic Management Journal, 9(4), pp.319-332.
24. Lambert, D. M., Emmelhainz, M. A. & Gardner, J. T. (1996), Developing and implementing supply chain partnerships, The International Journal of Logistics management, 7(2), pp.1-17.
25. Leonard-Barton , (1992), “Core Capabilities and core rigidities: a paradox in managing new product development”, Strategic Management Journal, 14, pp. 111-129
26. Lewis (1990), Making Strategic Alliance Work, Research Technology Management, 33(6), pp.12-15.
27. Mclvor, R. and M. McHugh (2000): Partnership sourcing: An organization change management perspective. Journal of Supply Chain Management, Summer 2000, 12-20.
28. Miller & Shamise (1996), The Theory of Finance, Dryden, Hinsdale, IL.
29. Mohr & Spekman (1994), characteristics of partnership success: partnership attributes, communication behavior, and conflict resolution techniques, Strategic Management Journal, vol.15, pp.135-152.
30. Murray & Mahon (1993), Strategic Alliances: Gateway To The New Europe? Long Rang Planning, 26(4), pp.102-111.
31. Penrose, E.T. (1959), The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Oxford: Blackwell
32. Pfeffer & Salancik, (1978),“The External Control of Organizations: A ResourceDependence Perspective ,”Social Control of Organizations , Haper & Row Publishers.
33. Porter, M. E. (1980), Competitive Strategy, New York: Free Press.
34.Porter, M. E. (1985), Competitive Advantage, New York: Free Press.
35. Porter, M. and M. B. Fuller (1986), Coalition and Global Strategy: Competing in Global Industries, Harvard Business Press, Boston, Mass.
36. Porter, M. E. (1990), The competitive advantage of Nations, New York:Free Press.
37. Porter, M. E. (1998), Competitive Advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance, New York: Free Press.
38. Rackham, Frifdman & Ruff (1995),“Getting Partnering Right: How Market Leaders Are Creating Long-term Competitive Advantage, McGraw-Hill.
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三、網站部份
1. 工研院產業經濟與資訊服務中心-IEK,http://iek.itri.org.tw/
2. 電子時報,http://member.digitimes.com.tw
3. 財團法人資訊工業策進會, http://www.iii.org.tw/
4. DRAMeXchange, http://www.dramexchange.com/member
5. Gartner, http://www.gartner.com/
6. IDC, http://www.idc.com/
7. inSpectrum, http://www.insye.com/
8. iSuppli, http://www.isuppli.com/
9. WSTS, http://www.wsts.org/
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