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研究生:黃憲輝
研究生(外文):Hsien-hui Huang
論文名稱:扁平化功能性組織架構下專案團隊組建之研究—以台朔重工汽電共生處為例
論文名稱(外文):A study on project team organization for a company with flat functional department framework - A case of Formosa Heavy Industrial Cogeneration Department
指導教授:蔡憲唐蔡憲唐引用關係黃榮鵬黃榮鵬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsien-Tang TsaiLeo Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:高階經營碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:專案團隊專案管理扁平化功能性組織矩陣式專案組織
外文關鍵詞:project teamsproject managementproject organization.functional organization
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摘 要
功能性組織是現今企業最普遍的組織結構,公司的組織是按業務的功\能不同而採取一種金字塔式的組織,這就是所謂傳統式的組織結構。這種組織結構的最大優點在容易控制,對預算和成本的計算也比較精確;其主要劣勢是對外界環境變化的反應太慢,這種反應又需要跨部門的協調,如果環境變化快或技術是非例行、相互依存的,則會出現縱向決策信息超載,高層決策緩慢的現象,在這樣的組織,大家習慣等待高層決策,而缺少橫向聯繫和自主的解決問題的意識。
台塑企業屬扁平化功能性組織,台朔重工汽電共生處為台塑集團之子公司,設立於1991年,主要業務近年已由承接集團內汽電共生廠之建造,轉為承攬海內外汽電共生廠或發電廠之建廠統包工程,為使專案工程能有效整合、管理,以達成依預定的時程、規範、性能、品質及預算完成專案之目標,台朔重工汽電共生處嚐試採用矩陣式專案組織,但往往因功能性組織之權責較專案組織之權責遠來得鮮明,造成專案團隊無法落實專案管理之整合與達成預期績效,對專案之成果大打折扣。
本研究透過探討專案組織之特性及優缺點,並挑選吉興工程顧問公司與中鼎工程公司二個專門承攬大型工程之工程公司進行專家訪談,了解一般大型工程之工程公司專案團隊組建方式與績效,並針對個案公司環境、企業文化、企業制度以及部門特性進行深入探討,研究建議台朔重工汽電處採行矩陣式專案組織,而台塑企業的制度係依其功能性組織之垂直架構賦予責任與權限,因此,於權限上無可避免的無法與公司既定制度悖離,在實際作法上採行將專案經理納入各功\能部門核簽程序中的一環,一來使專案經理充分掌握各功能部門之執行進度,二來使專案經理能依專案執行的角度,適切、即時的參與各功\\能部門執行作業上的決策;並建議於執行上需就環境、組織文化、人際關係、資訊流通等克服矩陣管理瓶頸,以增進專案執行之效能。

關鍵字:專案管理、專案團隊、扁平化功能性組織、矩陣式專案組織。
Abstract
Functional organization is nowadays the most common form of business organization structure, the company''s department was established in accordance with business function and forms a pyramidal structure of organization, and this is the so-called traditional organizational structures. This organizational structure has the greatest advantage of the easy control and more accurate on the budget and cost calculations. In such functional organization structure, its main disadvantage is too slow in responding to condition changes and this reaction need interdepartmental coordination. If the environment changes faster or technology is a non-routine and interdependent, then the phenomenon of longitudinal decision-making information overloading and senior decision making slowly will take place. In such an organization, everyone used to wait for a high-level decision and lack of horizontal linkages and solve problem autonomously.
Formosa Plastics Goup is a flat functional organization. Formosa heavy industrial is a subsidiary of Formosa Plastics Group, established in 1991. The main business of Formosa Heavy Industries Corporation in recent years has been changed from undertake co-generator power plant for group in-house company to undertake overseas cogeneration power plant turnkey projects. In order to make the project execution more efficient on integration, management and accomplish project per contract specified schedule, specification, quality, performance and under budgets, Formosa heavy industrial tried to execute project by means of project organization. But the power and responsibility of functional unit are often more obvious than project team, result in the project team was unable to implement the project of the desired performance.
This research expects to know how large engineering companies organize their project teams and how good their performances are by investigating the characteristics and advantages of the project organization. Besides, expert interviews are conducted in two major engineering companies, GIBSIN Engineers, Ltd. and CTCI CORPORATION. And through the in-depth case study on corporate environment, corporate culture, enterprise system and the department characteristic, it is recommended that Formosa Heavy Industries Corporation Co-generation Department had better to take Matrix project organization. Formosa Enterprise system is given responsibility and authority according to its functional organization of vertical schema, inevitably, the project manager could not given formal authority that is departed from the established system of the company. The actual practice is to incorporate project manager into the decision making procedure of each functional division regarding of the project. One of the reasons is that the project manager can fully grasp the progress rates of various functional departments.Secondly, the project managers can follow the project implementation point of view to involve in the decision-making on the implementation of operations appropriately and Immediatly. Finally, this research recommends that the implementation would be required to the environment, organizational culture, interpersonal relationships, and information flow so can enhance the effectiveness of project execution.

Key words: project management, project teams, functional organization, project organization.
目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究流程 2
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 功能性組織架構 4
第二節 專案管理的定義與特性 5
第三節 專案管理的關鍵成功因素 13
第四節 矩陣式組織架構 19
第五節 專案組織與功能性組織間之衝突與問題 28
第三章 研究設計 39
第一節 研究架構 39
第二節 研究方法 40
第三節 研究模式 41
第四章 研究個案分析 42
第一節 台朔重工汽電處簡介 42
第二節 台朔重工汽電處之組織 45
第三節 國內大型工程公司專案組織 47
第四節 研究發現 62
第五章 結論與建議 70
第一節 研究結論 70
第二節 研究建議 73
第三節 管理意涵 83
參考文獻 85
附錄:國內大型工程公司質性訪談問卷 94

表目錄
表2-1 傳統功能管理組織與專案管理組織的比較 8
表2-2 專案類型及特徵 10
表2-3 專案執行的關鍵成功因素 17
表2-4 專案發展各階段的關鍵成功因訴彙總表(按次數高低) 18
表2-5 五種專案組織的特徵 24
表2-6 衝突定義匯總表 31
表2-7 解決與刺激衝突的技巧 35
表4-1 全球燃煤鍋爐製造公司受訂及排名一覽表 44

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程 3
圖2-1 功能性組織結構 5
圖2-2 專案管理系統過程 13
圖2-3 領導式矩陣組織 21
圖2-4 簡單的協調式矩陣組織 21
圖2-5 專案組織的五種架構 23
圖2-6 弱矩陣組織架構圖 25
圖2-7 組織型態的連續體 26
圖2-8 衝突行為的構面模式 33
圖2-9 衝突緊張連續體 34
圖2-10 衝突行為十分量突 35
圖3-1 扁平化功能性組織架構下專案團隊組建之研究架構圖 39
圖3-2 影響專案組織與專案績效之研究模式 41
圖4-1 台朔重工股份有限公司組織圖 42
圖4-2 台朔重工汽電處組織圖 45
圖4-3 台朔重工汽電處弱矩陣組織結構 46
圖4-4 吉興公司組織架構圖 48
圖4-5 吉興工作團隊組織架構圖 49
圖4-6 中鼎工程公司工作團隊組織架構 51
圖4-7 中鼎工程公司專案組織圖 52
圖4-8 中鼎工程公司設計專案組織圖 53
圖4-9 建議之台朔重工汽電處混合式專案組織結構 64
圖4-10 台朔重工汽電處專案組織圖 65
圖4-11 設計文件核簽流程 66
圖4-12 請購規範核簽流程 67
圖4-13 請購與發包案件評估分析核簽流程 68
圖4-14 寄送客戶圖面與文件簽發流程 69
圖4-15 專案成員與客戶聯繫關聯圖 69
圖5-1 建議之台朔重工汽電處混合式專案組織結構 72
圖5-8 訊息系統的區分 75
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