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研究生:賴紹偉
研究生(外文):Shao-Wei Lai
論文名稱:自主式運輸型機器人於十字路口之設計與應用
論文名稱(外文):Design and Application of an Autonomous Transportation Robot in Intersections
指導教授:彭昭暐彭昭暐引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jau-Woei Perng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:運輸機器人視覺系統模糊控制枕木紋行人穿越道
外文關鍵詞:CrosswalkTransportation RobotFuzzy ControlVision System
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本論文主要提出並設計一自主式運輸機器人,透過模糊推論以及影像、雷達、編碼器等感測資訊融合達到即時決策與控制,提供老年及行動弱勢族群可以安心且安全地順利通過路口的枕木紋行人穿越道。因此本論文中所設計之自主式運輸機器人運用於十字路口時,主要利用視覺系統即時回授機器人位置偏移量與方位偏差角,感測資訊所量測到的誤差,經由模糊推論之控制器進行機器人的姿態修正,使其可以順利通過行人穿越道;本論文也考慮了機器人行進過程中,有可能會遭遇障礙物,透過視覺系統回授的資訊所設計的模糊控制器,可以提供障礙物閃避使運送任務順利完成。另外本文也考慮在行人穿越道交接處的導引,利用視覺系統辨識盲人專用道,進行左右導引轉至下個路口處,並配合路口代理人資訊進行防碰撞系統,以便安全通行至下一條枕木紋行人穿越道,其完成整個十字路口之安全系統。
This thesis proposes and designs an autonomous transportation robot. It can provide elders and disabled people to cross the crosswalk safely with sensor information fusion for real time decision-making and control by fuzzy inference and the information of image, radar, and encoder etc. In this study, the vision system makes feedback of position offset, and declination angle through the fuzzy controller, the robot could modify the attitude error to cross the crosswalk completely. This thesis considers obstacles in the forward path. Using the vision feedback information to design the fuzzy controller, it can supply obstacle avoidance to make the transportation smoothly. Besides, we also address the robot guide at a crosswalk interface point. The detection of special purpose road for the blinds on the vision system can guide the robot to make a right turn or left turn to the next intersection. In cooperate with the intersection-agent system for collision avoidance, the robot could pass through the next crosswalk safely in order to finish the whole safely intersection system.
致謝 i
目錄 ii
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 xiii
摘要 xv
Abstract xvi
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 文獻回顧 3
1-3 主要貢獻 6
1.4 章節介紹 7
第二章 系統概述 9
2-1 簡介 9
2-2 系統功能 10
2-2-1 穿越枕木紋行人穿越道 10
2-2-2 閃避障礙物 11
2-2-3 路口代理人 13
2-3 系統流程 14
2-4 硬體實現 15
第三章 模糊控制理論 16
3-1 模糊理論 16
3-2 模糊集合 17
3-3 模糊關係 23
3-4 模糊推論與邏輯 26
3-5 模糊化與解模糊化 29
3-5-1 模糊化 29
3-5-2 解模糊化 30
第四章 系統設計 35
4-1 方位推估法 35
4-2 點對點路徑規劃 36
4-3 沿牆行走 40
4-4 路口代理人防碰撞系統 44
4-4-1 建立場景 45
4-4-2 搜尋移動物體 46
4-4-3 路口警示系統 47
4-4-4 無線傳輸 49
4-5 穿越枕木紋行人穿越道 50
4-5-1 影像回授 50
4-5-2 回授控制 52
第五章 系統實現 57
5-1 實驗平台 57
5-1-1 實驗車輛 57
5-1-2 微型電腦 58
5-2 感測器 61
5-2-1 雷射測距儀 61
5-2-2 光學編碼器 65
5-2-3 陀螺儀 68
5-2-4 視覺系統 70
5-3 致動器 71
5-3-1 驅動電路 71
5-4 傳輸模組 74
5-4-1 R-net多功能電控模組 74
5-4-2 無線串列傳輸模組 76
5-4-3 影像擷取卡 78
5-5 軟體系統 78
第六章 實驗結果 80
6-1 點對點路徑規劃 80
6-1-1 0度角 80
6-1-2 45度角 81
6-1-3 90度角 83
6-1-4 負45度角 84
6-1-5 負90度角 85
6-2 沿牆行走 86
6-2-1 逆時針行走 86
6-2-2 順時針行走 88
6-3 穿越枕木紋行人穿越道 90
6-4 閃避障礙物 92
6-5 導盲磚導引運輸機器人 94
6-6 路口代理人 97
6-6-1 車輛先行情境模擬 97
6-6-2車輛禮讓輪椅情境模擬 100
6.7 特殊場景 103
第七章 結論與未來展望 105
7.1 結論 105
7.2 未來展望 106
參考文獻 108

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