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研究生:鄭麗玲
研究生(外文):Li-lin Cheng
論文名稱:以人工濕地淨化生活污水混合養豬廢水處理場排水
論文名稱(外文):Performance on the Constructed Wetlands for Clarification of Sewage Mixed with Secondary-treated Swine Wastewater
指導教授:周明顯周明顯引用關係
指導教授(外文):M. S. Chou
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:畜牧廢水人工濕地上流式厭氧污泥床
外文關鍵詞:swine wastewaterCWUASB
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武洛溪位於南台灣屏東縣境內,長期受到未處理生活污水及未妥善處理畜牧養豬廢水之污染,屬於台灣嚴重污染河川之一。本研究之主要目的冀望利用自然並有效的處理技術來改善河川水質,第一部分以武洛溪人工濕地案例,探討其處理效率與處理量,並解析操作参數,因其處理效能有限;第二部分則以生活污水混合部分處理之畜牧廢水模擬河川水質,並於實驗室設置上流式厭氧污泥床(UASB)串聯人工濕地(CW)淨化混合污水,藉此以提昇濕地之處理效能;第三部分則應用第二部分之試驗結果,以武洛溪水為水樣,比較試驗組UASB-CWs與對照組CWs之處理效率。
武洛溪人工濕地佔地約18公頃,於2005年1月開始運作,實際濕地面積約9公頃,其中濕地植物約佔1.9公頃,平均水體總體積約9,930 m3,平均流量約10,800 CMD,水力停留時間(HRT)0.92天;濕地中間點對污染物之處理效率最高,其TCOD、BOD及SS之去除率分別為60、60及67%,而放流口處,對TCOD、BOD及SS之去除率卻僅為56、54及45%,可能因植物腐爛造成有機物、氮及磷釋出造成放流口水質惡化,另外人工濕地對TN去除率約18%,但卻無法有效去除TP。
第二部分以UASB-CWs試驗系統處理生活污水混合部分處理之畜牧廢水,UASB之HRT分別為6和2小時,對污染物去除率並無顯著之差異,整體而言,UASB除對AN和TP去除效果較差外,但可有效去除大部分污染物,而UASB-CWs系統對SS、SCOD、SBOD、AN及TP之去除率分別達93、91、86、89及78%,顯示UASB-CWs系統可實際應用於河川水質改善。
第三部分試驗組為UASB串聯CW1和CW2,控制組則無UASB,僅CW1串聯CW2,試驗水樣取自武洛溪水,以UASB之HRT分別為6、4和2小時,比較對污染物去除率之差異。結果顯示,重金屬易於在第一個處理單元沉降,造成試驗組UASB沉積物之重金屬濃度高於對照組CW1;當河川水質之SS變異大時,UASB可做為初沉池,以防止CW1阻塞,當UASB之HRT為4小時,CW1和CW2分別為32小時,不管是試驗組或對照組,對各污染物之去除率最高,SS、NH3和TN之去除率達96%以上,COD和TP約70%,而BOD約60%,當CW1和CW2之HRT降至16小時,TN和TP之去除率也隨之降低。
The Wu-Luo River, located in the Ping-Tong County of southern Taiwan, has long been polluted by untreated domestic and partially treated swine wastewaters and is among the most polluted rivers in Taiwan. The main objective of this study was to find a practical and effective way to improve water qualities of seriously polluted rivers with a natural technology. The Wu-Luo River was taken as an illustration of the approach in the first subject of this study. The second subject used mixed sewage and a partially-treated swine waster as a simulated polluted river water to test if an UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor followed by a constructed wetland (CW) system could be used for clarification of the water. For verification of the performance results achieved by the second subject, the third subject used a pilot UASB-CWs system to test the performances by using the water sampled from the Wu-Luo River.
A full-scale constructed wetland system (CWs) has been in operation for cleaning a portion of polluted Wu-Luo River water since January 2005. The first section of study investigated the efficiency and treatment capacity of this full-scale CWs on the river shore, and the operation parameters of CWs could be improved to enhance the treatment.
Due to the limited efficiency and capacity of the full-scale CWs treatment, the second section of this study use a pilot-scale system to treat wastewater mixed in laboratory to simulate the polluted water treatment of the Wu-Luo River. This system was equipped with an UASB reactor in front of the CWs, which is expected to raise the efficiency and capacity of the CWs.
Since the system of UASB-CWs in the second section showed good performance, the actual Wu-Luo River water was introduced to 2 pilot-scale systems which only the experimental one had UASB reactor before CWs in the third section of study. The removal efficiency of pollutants including heavy metals between the experimental and control systems was compared.
In the first section, the Wu-Luo River CWs occupied a total area of 18 hectares in which approximately 9 hectares were wetted by the introduced river water. Close to 4.7 hectares of the CWs was flooded by the river water with 1.9 hectares occupied by emergent and floating plants. A total water volume of about 9,930 m3 was estimated. During the investigation period, 10,000-20,000 m3/d (CMD) (average 10,800 CMD) of the polluted river water was introduced to the CWs with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.92 day. It was concluded that water sampled from near the midpoint of the CWs got better clarification results than those from the effluent end. Pollutant removal efficiencies were 60, 60, and 67%, respectively, for TCOD, BOD, and SS at the midpoint, and 56, 54, and 45%, respectively, for TCOD, BOD, and SS at the effluent end. Organics, N, and P released from decayed plants were responsible for the poor water qualities at the end. The CWs had only a TN removal efficacy of approximately 18% with no TP removal effect.
In the second section, a pilot system with an UASB reactor combined with two CW reactors was used to evaluate the feasibility of treating wastewater samples (mixture of sewage and partially-treated swine wastewater). To observe the influence of HRT on the removal efficiency of various pollutants in the wastewater in the UASB reactor, 2 phases of experiments with HRTs of 6 and 2 hours were conducted. The UASB reactor responded well in removing most of the pollutants observed except for AN and TP. The average removal efficiency could reach the levels of 93, 91, 86, 89, and 78% for SS, SCOD, SBOD, AN, and TP with the UASB-CWs systems, which have potentials to be used to improve the water quality in river in practice. To observe the influence of HRT on the removal efficiency of various pollutants in the wastewater in the UASB reactor, 2 phases of experiments with HRTs of 6 and 2 hours were conducted.
In the third section, the experimental system was composed of UASB-CW1-CW2 in seris, whereas that of control system was only CW1-CW2 in series. Water samples were taken from Wu-Luo River water. To observe the influence of HRT on the removal efficiency of various pollutants in the river water in the UASB reactor, 3 phases of experiments with HRTs of 6, 4, and 2 hours were conducted. Heavy metals were easily settled in the first section of treatment, the concentrations of them were found higher in the sediments in UASB of experimental system than those in CW1 of control system. UASB can be used for primary sedimentation to prevent the CW1 blocking especially when the river quality changes dramatically on SS. With 4 hrs of HRT in UASB and 32 hrs in CW1 and CW2 each, the removal efficiency is the highest for all pollutants observed in this study. In the effluent of both of the whole systems, more than 96% of SS, NH3, and TN were removed, while more than 70% of COD and TP, more than 60% of BOD were also removed. When HRT in CW1 and CW2 is decreased to be lower than 16 hrs, the ability of CWs to remove TN and TP is also lowered.
摘要 Ⅰ
ABSTRACT Ⅲ
謝誌 Ⅵ
Table of Contents Ⅶ
List of Tables Ⅸ
List of Figures Ⅹ
Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 2-1
2.1 Water Pollution in the Rivers in Taiwan 2-1
2.2 Constructed Wetland 2-2
2.2.1 Removal Mechanisms 2-5
2.3 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) 2-7
Chapter 3 Material and Methods 3-1
3.1 Experimental Designs 3-1
3.1.1 Performance of the Wu-Luo constructed wetland 3-1
3.1.2 Treatment of mixture of sewage and partially-treated swine wastewater 3-3
3.1.3 Treatment of polluted Wu-Luo river water 3-5
3.2 Analysis Methods 3-7
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions 4-1
4.1 Performance on the Wu-Luo constructed wetland 4-1
4.1.1 Introduction to the Wu-Luo River 4-1
4.1.2 Point variations of pollutants in water, bottom sludge, and plant body 4-2
4.1.3 Time variations of system parameters 4-8
4.1.4 Comparisons with other CWs 4-13
4.2 Treatment of mixture of sewage and partially-treated swine wastewater 4-15
4.2.1 System Performances 4-15
4.2.2 Comparisons 4-25
4.3 Treatment of polluted Wu-Luo river water 4-28
4.3.1 Phase 1 4-28
4.3.2 Phase 2 4-31
4.3.3 Phase 3 4-34
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Suggestions 5-1
5.1 Conclusions 5-1
5.1.1 Performance on the Wu-Luo constructed wetland 5-1
5.1.2 Treatment of mixture of sewage and partially-treated swine wastewater 5-2
5.1.3 Treatment of polluted Wu-Luo river water 5-3
5.2 Suggestions 5-4
References 6-1
作者簡歷與著作 7-1
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