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研究生:吳建勳
研究生(外文):Wu, Chien-Hsun
論文名稱:綠能車輛動力系統之控制導向模型化與最佳控制器設計整合
論文名稱(外文):Control-Oriented Modeling and Integrated Optimal System Controller Design for Green Power Vehicles
指導教授:洪哲文洪哲文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hong, Che-Wun
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:燃料電池超電容鋰離子電池系統動態最佳化
外文關鍵詞:fuel cellsupercapacitorlithium-ion battersystem dynamicsoptimization
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本論文針對三種綠色能源:氫氣質子交換膜燃料電池、超電容以及鋰離子電池,進行以控制器設計暨即時模擬為導向之系統動態建模;並分析線性、非線性,時域與頻域之關係。之後,發展出一套最佳化系統匹配/能量管理之整合型系統設計流程,以利後續電動載具應用。系統建模理論部分主要採取適用於多重領域之鍵結圖法則,以進行各能量源之建模。質子交換膜燃料電池部分,首先由創新之鍵結圖元件得到高非線性動態,而後進行系統參數鑑別與線性化。超電容先以交流阻抗法建立等效線性模型後,藉由鍵結圖推導與分析時頻域之動態,接著以一組三層類神經網路,建構模型參數與操作溫度、系統電壓之非線性關係,最後完成即時非線型超電容模型。鋰離子電池部份,先以交流阻抗法取得其新型等效電路並進行參數鑑別,另以鍵結圖法求得之模型進行分析比對。
本論文另一主軸為發展最佳系統匹配與能量管理之整合型混合混合儲能系統設計流程。最佳混合系統匹配,可分為時間獨立與時間相依兩種全域搜尋流程,利用訂定之指標參數、目標函數與多迴圈架構,進行全域模擬。最佳能量管理部分,亦利用相似原理,求得整車控制器之雙動力源之能量管理多維表,以達到耗能最小化之目標。整合上述兩者之研究,發展整合型最佳系統匹配/能量管理演算流程,以達成絕對最佳化之目標。

This thesis aims to study three green power sources: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), supercapacitors (SCs), and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The first research scope is to model their system dynamics for controller design and real-time simulators; the relationship among linear models and nonlinear models in the time domain and the frequency domain was analyzed. Next, a design procedure for optimal system integration and energy management of a hybrid electric power source was explored. It mainly focuses on the application to electric vehicles. For multi-disciplinary system modeling, a unified bond graph approach was employed. The highly-nonlinear model of PEMFCs using novel bond graph elements was firstly constructed. Then parameter identification and model linearization algorithms were solved. Comparison between the bond graph model and the electric circuit was completed to discuss the model accuracy and the physical interpretation. For the SCs, an equivalent linear model via AC impedance spectroscopy was built up. A bond graph derived from the equivalent model was further established to analyze the system dynamics in the time domain and in the frequency domain. To describe the nonlinear effects among model parameters, operation temperature, and the SC voltage, a three-layer artificial neural network was applied to form an online nonlinear SC model. For the LIBs, a new equivalent circuit according to the AC impedance approach was set up. The parameters were identified from the experimental data. Comparisons between the bond graph model and the equivalent circuit were then discussed.
The second research target in this thesis was to develop a design procedure of optimal system integration and energy management for hybrid electric power sources. For hybrid system combination, two global optimization search methods: a time-independent and the other time dependent methods were proposed. By selecting evaluation indices, a cost function, and a multiple for-loop structure code, the optimal solution can be found. With similar procedures, the optimal energy management was evaluated in the form of multi-dimensional tables in the vehicle control unit to deal with the equipped dual power sources. Integrating the above two research issues, a procedure for optimal system designs/energy management was proposed. The absolute optimization can thus be achieved.

摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XI
符號列表 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 文獻回顧 3
1.3.1 PEM燃料電池 3
1.3.2 超電容 4
1.3.3 鋰電池 6
1.3.4 系統設計設計與能量管理系統最佳化 7
第二章 PEM燃料電池動態模型 9
2.1 系統元件模型化 9
2.1.1 理想電化學反應輸出電壓 9
2.1.2 活化能損失(activation loss) 10
2.1.3 離子濃度損失(concentration loss) 11
2.1.4 歐姆損失(ohmic loss) 12
2.1.5 燃料電池組實際電壓輸出 13
2.2 燃料電池系統與非線性動態建立 14
2.2.1 燃料供應系統 16
2.2.2 空氣管理系統 16
2.2.3 溫度管理系統 17
2.2.4 電力輸出與控制 17
2.2.5 加濕動態方程式 17
2.2.6 非線性系統架構建立 19
2.2.7 系統效率 20
第三章 超電容動態模型 21
3.1 系統元件模型化 21
3.1.1 超電容簡介 21
3.1.2 交流阻抗分析原理 22
3.1.3 超電容等效電路建立 24
3.1.4 超電容測試平台建立 28
3.2 超電容動態模型建立 30
3.2.1 超電容線性動態方程式 30
3.2.2 超電容線性時變狀態方程式 33
3.2.3 超電容非線性時變狀態方程式 35
第四章 鋰電池動態模型 40
4.1 系統元件模型化 40
4.1.1 鋰電池介紹 40
4.1.2 鋰電池等效電路建立 40
4.1.3 鋰電池測試平台建立 42
4.2 鋰電池動態模型建立 43
第五章 車輛系統整合與整合型最佳化控制 47
5.1 車輛系統整合 47
5.1.1 直流無刷馬達 48
5.1.2 傳動機構與車體系統 49
5.1.3 硬體嵌入式系統 49
5.2 整合型最佳化設計 51
5.2.1 最佳系統設計設計 52
5.2.2 最佳控制策略設計 55
5.2.3 整合型系統設計與控制策略最佳化 61
第六章 模擬與實驗結果 63
6.1 PEM燃料電池 63
6.1.1 單片性能模擬 63
6.1.2 非線性系統模擬與驗證 64
6.2 超電容 66
6.2.1 線性時變系統模擬與驗證 66
6.2.2 非線性即時模擬與驗證 69
6.3 鋰電池 73
6.3.1 線性系統模擬與驗證 73
6.3.2 非線性系統模擬與驗證 75
6.4混合動力車模擬結果 76
6.4.1 ECE40行車型態 76
6.4.1 FTP75行車型態 79
6.5 整合式混合儲能系統最佳化模擬結果 83
第七章 結論與未來工作 88
7.1 控制導向系統模型 88
7.1.1 PEM燃料電池 88
7.1.2 超電容 88
7.1.3 鋰電池 88
7.1.4 整車控制 89
7.2 整合式最佳系統控制器設計 89
7.3 貢獻 89
7.4 未來工作與建議 90
參考文獻 91
附錄A Derivation of a third-order linear single input single output (SISO) supercapacitor model 97
附錄B Derivation of a transfer function for the supercapacitor 99
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