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研究生:林全盛
研究生(外文):Lin, Chuan-Sheng
論文名稱:小型系統級封裝之可靠度與散熱效能分析與設計
論文名稱(外文):Design and Analysis of Reliability and Thermal Performance of a Compact System in Package
指導教授:陳文華陳文華引用關係鄭仙志
指導教授(外文):Chen, Wen-HwaCheng, Hsien-Chie
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:系統級封裝可靠度覆晶晶片數位影像相關法網格生死生成技術疲勞壽命加速熱循環超模型類神經網路製程應力散熱效能紅外線熱像儀
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為滿足消費者對電子產品高效能、多功能性與及輕薄微小化等功能的需求,現今封裝技術正朝向高功率、高密度、低成本、可快速研發、可高度整合之系統級封裝(System in Package,SiP) 發展。系統級封裝主要係將多個不同功能晶片與被動元件組合於單一封裝結構上,以提昇單一封裝元件之效能。但在系統設計與整合下,封裝結構將更趨於複雜,且將多晶片整合於單一封裝內,此舉將大幅提昇此單一封裝之功率,加上系統級封裝朝小型化發展,勢必會使得此封裝之功率密度急遽增加,造成封裝內部產生局部高溫區以及所謂熱點,而衍生局部高熱應力問題,對晶片及相鄰元件如導線或接點直接造成損壞,或是於製程或是環境測試下受到循環載重而產生疲勞破壞,而影響此封裝元件之可靠度。
本文主要係針對一內含多顆覆晶(flip chip)及被動元件的小型平面式系統級封裝之散熱效能、錫球可靠度及封裝製程應力等進行分析與設計。為達成此一目標,本研究將採用商業有限單元軟體ANSYS® 對此封裝力學行為進行分析,分析模式上將使用三維有限單元模型。在錫球可靠度分析上,將假設此無鉛錫球為一具潛變與塑性特性之材料,以加速熱循環測試作為施載,找出最先破壞的錫球位置,並使用Coffin- Manson公式預測該錫球疲勞壽命。在系統級封裝散熱效能分析上,則考慮自然對流環境下,以晶片功率施載時封裝之熱傳導性質,以晶片熱阻值評估封裝散熱效能。在封裝製程應力分析上,本文將針對此封裝之主要製程步驟進行製程模擬,分析方法將採用三維非線性有限元素分析並搭配網格生死生成技術等。此數值分析模式之正確性將藉由相關力學與熱傳實驗及數據加以驗證,包含數位影像相關法進行翹曲量量測、熱電偶搭配紅外線熱像儀進行溫度量測、熱循環測試錫球可靠度數據以及比對電子顯微鏡進行實驗觀察破壞分析等。
在掌握封裝力學特性後,將進一步藉由參數化有限元素分析探討影響上述三類封裝力學特性的主要因子,以作為改善此封裝力學的基礎,所考慮之設計變數包含元件材料性質、幾何尺寸以及製程參數等等。最後以錫球可靠度為例,利用類神經網路法(artificial neural network,ANN)為本之超模型(metamodeling)最佳化法搭配二次序列規劃(sequential quadratic programming,SQP)進行此系統封裝模組於熱循環載重下錫球可靠度最佳化設計。

摘要 I
目錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XI
第一章、導論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2文獻回顧 4
1.3研究目標與範圍 9
第二章、內含覆晶結構之系統級封裝 11
2.1系統級封裝結構 11
2.2封裝製程 12
第三章、理論與分析分法 14
3.1可靠度分析 14
3.1.1加速熱循環試驗 14
3.1.2錫銀合金材料組成律 15
3.1.3錫球疲勞壽命預估 15
3.2散熱效能分析 17
3.2.1 熱傳分析邊界條件 17
3.2.2散熱效能評估 18
3.3實驗量測方法 18
3.3.1封裝翹曲量量測 18
3.3.2封裝溫度場量測 20
3.4製程模擬分析 21
3.5等效材料常數計算 22
第四章、三維有限單元分析模型 24
4.1三維有限單元結構/熱傳分析模型 25
4.2二階段全域/局部分析模型 26
第五章、超模型的建構 27
5.1類神經網路 27
5.2倒傳遞類神經網路 28
5.2.1多層感知器網路架構 28
5.2.2誤差倒傳遞演算法 29
5.3倒傳遞類神經網路訓練流程 31
第六章、結果與討論 32
6.1錫球可靠度分析 32
6.1.1數位影像相關法翹曲量驗證 33
6.1.2熱機械行為分析 33
6.1.3 參數化分析 36
6.1.3.1楊氏模數影響 37
6.1.3.2熱膨脹係數影響 37
6.1.3.3幾何厚度影響 38
6.1.3.4 U1晶片位置影響 38
6.2散熱效能分析 39
6.2.1紅外線熱像儀與熱電耦溫度量測實驗 39
6.2.2系統級封裝模組散熱效能分析 41
6.2.3參數化分析 41
6.3製程應力分析 42
6.3.1實驗觀察破壞分析 43
6.3.2參數化分析 44
6.3.2.1楊氏模數影響 44
6.3.2.2熱膨脹係數影響 45
6.3.2.3幾何厚度影響 45
6.4錫球可靠度最佳化設計 46
第七章、結論與展望 50
參考文獻 54
附表 63
附圖 73


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