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研究生:游智強
研究生(外文):Yu, Chih-Chiang
論文名稱:ImprovedAlgorithmsforSomePatternMatchingandVertex-DisjointPathsProblems
論文名稱(外文):針對字串索引及點互斥路徑問題之改進演算法
指導教授:王炳豐
指導教授(外文):Wang, Biing-Feng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:演算法資料結構字串索引點互斥路徑完全多項式時間近似方案
外文關鍵詞:algorithmsdata structurestext indexingvertex-disjoint pathsfully polynomial-time approximation schemes
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This dissertation is composed of the following two fundamental research topics in computer science: string matching and finding disjoint paths.
In the first part, we study the following three indexing problems: the positional text indexing problem, the position-restricted text indexing problem, and the variable- length don't care text indexing problem. Previous solutions for these indexing problems heavily rely on efficient indexes to the range successor problem. Thus, any improvement on the range successor problem immediately leads to improved results for these indexing problems. In this dissertation, we present three new indexes for the range successor problem. More specifically, we give (1) a succinct n + o(n)-word index with O(log n / loglog n) query time, whose query time improves previous O(n)-word index by an O(loglog n) factor; (2) an O(n loglog n)-word index with O((loglog n)^2) query time, whose space-time product is better than all previous solutions; and (3) an O(n^{1+\epsilon})-word index with O(1) query time, which is simpler than the previous O(1)-time index. In addition, our index in (2) can be extended to solve the well-known orthogonal range successor problem in R^3. The extended index needs O(n log^{1+\epsilon} n) words and supports O(log n loglog n) query time, improving a long-standing result which uses O(n log^2 n) words with the same query time.
Our results on the range successor problem immediately lead to improved results for the above three indexing problems over general alphabets. For real world applications, the alphabet size is usually small. In this dissertation, we also consider these three indexing problems over alphabets of size O(polylog(n)). For the first and third problems, we present optimal O(n)-word indexes with O(p) query time. For the second problem, we show that a query can be answered in O(n log^\epsilon n) space and O(p + occ) time, or in O(n) space and O(p + occ log^\epsilon n) time. When |Σ| = O(polylog(n)), our indexes are better than all the previous results.
In the second part of this dissertation, we consider the following two problems: the problem of finding length-bounded two vertex-disjoint paths in an undirected planar graph, and the problem of finding minmax k vertex-disjoint paths in a directed acyclic graph. For the first problem, an improved algorithm is presented, which requires O(n^3 b_min) time and O(n^2 b_min) space, where b_min is the smaller of the two given length bounds. For the second problem, an improved algorithm and a faster fully polynomial-time approximation scheme are proposed. The proposed algorithm requires O(n^{k+1} M^{k-1}) time and O(n^k M^{k-1}) space, and the proposed approximation scheme requires O((1/\epsilon)^{k-1} n^{2k} log^{k-1} M) time and O((1/\epsilon)^{k-1} n^{2k-1} log^{k-1} M) space, where \epsilon is the given approximation parameter and M is the length of the longest path in an optimal solution.
本篇論文探討了資訊科學領域中相當基礎且重要的兩個研究議題: 字串索引問題及找尋互斥路徑問題。
本論文的第一部分探討下列三個有位置限制的字串索引問題: 特定位置之後的字串索引問題、區間範圍內的字串索引問題、以及包含 variable-length don't care 符號的字串索引問題。過去的結果主要是依賴解決 the range successor problem 的資料結構作為工具,所以只要 range successor 這個問題的資料結構有任何的改進,就可以得到這三個問題的改進結果。在這篇論文中,我們首先針對 range successor 這個問題提出三個新的索引資料結構。更明確地說,我們提出了 (1) 一個使用 n + o(n) 空間且支援 O(log n / loglog n) 查詢時間的資料結構,此結果的查詢時間比先前使用相同空間的資料結構快 O(loglog n) 倍;(2) 一個使用 O(n loglog n) 空間且支援 O((loglog n)^2) 查詢時間的資料結構,此結果的空間時間乘積優於過去所有的結果;以及 (3) 一個使用 O(n^{1+\epsilon}) 空間且支援 O(1) 查詢時間的資料結構,此結果比先前有相同複雜度的資料結構簡單許多。此外,第二個資料結構也可以用來解決在 R^3 空間中一個稱為 orthogonal range successor problem 的重要問題,使用 O(n log^{1+\epsilon} n) 空間且支援 O(log n loglog n) 查詢時間;這個結果改進了過去已經存在很久的最好結果。
利用我們在 range successor 這個問題上的改進結果,上述三個有位置限制的字串索引問題在任意大小的字符集下都可以被立刻改進。在現實生活的應用中,字符集通常很小,因此在本論文中,我們也探討了在小字符集下的上述三個字串索引問題。當字符集大小是 O(polylog(n)) 時,我們為這些問題提出了更有效率的改進演算法。針對第一個與第三個問題,我們提出了使用 O(n) 空間且支援 O(p) 查詢時間的最佳資料結構。針對第二個問題,我們提出了一個使用 O(n log^\epsilon n) 空間且支援 O(p) 查詢時間的資料結構;與一個使用 O(n) 空間且支援 O(p + occ log^\epsilon n) 查詢時間的資料結構。當字符集大小是 O(polylog(n)) 時,我們的演算法改進了過去所有的結果。
這篇論文的第二部分探討以下兩個問題: 在一個無向平面圖中找尋兩條有長度限制的點互斥路徑問題、以及在一個有向無循環圖中找尋 k 條點互斥路徑且讓最長路徑最小化的問題。針對第一個問題,我們提出一個改進演算法,時間與空間的複雜度分別為 O(n^3 b_min) 與 O(n^2 b_min),其中 b_min 為兩個給定的長度限制中較小的一個。針對第二個問題,我們提出了一個改進的演算法與一個更快的完全多項式時間近似方案 (fully polynomial-time approximation scheme)。提出的改進演算法使用了 O(n^{k+1} M^{k-1}) 時間與 O(n^k M^{k-1}) 空間;而提出的近似方案使用了 O((1/\epsilon)^{k-1} n^{2k} log^{k-1} M) 時間與 O((1/\epsilon)^{k-1} n^{2k-1} log^{k-1} M) 空間,其中 \epsilon 為給定的近似參數、M 為最佳解中最長路徑的長度。
Abstract i
Acknowledgement iv
Contents v
List of Figures viii
List of Tables x
Preface xi

Part I: String Matching with Position Restrictions

Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Related Work 5
1.2 Summary of Results 8
1.3 Organization of Part I 13
Chapter 2. Preliminaries 14
2.1 Common Notation and Definitions 14
2.2 Suffix Trees 14
2.3 Segment Trees 16
2.4 Wavelet Trees 16
2.5 Rank and Select Queries 17
2.6 Predecessor and Successor Queries 18
2.7 Presistent Data Structures 19
Chapter 3. The Orthogonal Range Successor Problem 20
3.1 Notation and Preliminaries 20
3.2 A Succinct Index for Range Successor Queries 22
3.2.1 The Core RS Index: Handling Ranges of Size O(lg n / (lglg n)^2) 22
3.2.2 The Core rankc Index: Handling Ranges of Size O(lg n / (lglg n)^2) 27
3.2.3 The General Index: Handling Ranges of Size n 31
3.3 A Simple Index with O(1) Query Time 36
3.3.1 An O(1)-time 2-Dimensional Range Successor Index 37
3.3.2 Extension to Higher Dimensions 39
3.4 An Index with Efficient Space-Time Product 40
3.4.1 Preliminaries: Two-Sided RS Queries 41
3.4.2 Preliminaries: Reduction to Rank Space 42
3.4.3 An O(n loglog n)-word RS Index 43
3.5 Efficient RS Indexes for Higher Dimensions 50
Chapter 4. Pattern Matching Problems with Position Restrictions 54
4.1 Notation and Definitions 54
4.2 Positional Text Indexing 55
4.2.1 An Index for Finite Alphabets 55
4.2.1.1 An Index for Short Patterns 56
4.2.1.2 An Index for Long Patterns 60
4.2.2 An Index for |Σ| = O(polylog(n)) 63
4.3 Position-Restricted Text Indexing 65
4.4 Variable-Length Don't Care Text Indexing 68
Chapter 5. Conclusion and Future Work 71

Part II: Finding Vertex-Disjoint Paths with Length Constraints

Chapter 6. Introduction 74
6.1 Summary of Results 77
6.2 Organization of Part II 79
Chapter 7. Length-Bounded Vertex-Disjoint Paths Problem on a Planar Graph 80
7.1 The Multi-Bounded Path Problem 80
7.2 Length-Bounded Two Vertex-Disjoint Paths 82
7.2.1 Notation and Definitions 83
7.2.2 Properties 84
7.2.3 An O(n3bmin)-time algorithm 87
Chapter 8. Minmax k Vertex-Disjoint Paths Problem on a Directed Acyclic Graph 93
8.1 An Improved Algorithm 93
8.2 A Faster Approximation Scheme 97
Chapter 9. Conclusion and Future Work 103

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