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研究生:陳淯星
研究生(外文):Chen, Yu-Hsing
論文名稱:以固態轉供開關與不斷電系統為基礎之電壓驟降渡過策略
論文名稱(外文):Voltage sag ride-through solutions based on solid-state transfer switches and uninterruptible power supplies
指導教授:鄭博泰
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Po-Tai
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:217
中文關鍵詞:電力品質電壓驟降變壓器磁通湧浪電流固態轉供開關不斷電系統
外文關鍵詞:power qualityvoltage sagtransformerfluxinrush currentsolid-state transfer switchuninterruptible power supply
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本論文針對固態轉供開關系統(STS)與不斷電系統(UPS),提出了一個新型的磁通控制技術,以實現快速的負載轉移並同時抑制湧浪電流。以閘流體元件為基礎的傳統的固態轉供開關系統已經被廣泛的應用於電力網路以提升電力品質與供電可靠度。然而,傳統的固態轉供開關系統所需之負載轉供時間經常需要超過四分之ㄧ個市電週期,同時負載轉供的過程也會引起嚴重的湧浪電流。在本論文中,一個具備強制換相電路之改良式固態轉供開關被提出,用於大幅減少線路轉移時間,並為敏感性負載提供更快速的電壓驟降渡過能力。以強制換相能力為基礎,當固態轉供開關搭配負載變壓器被用於保護敏感性負載時,一磁通估測技術與一閘流體之切換策略被提出用於抑制饋線轉移時之湧浪電流。實驗室之測試結果與電路設計上之考量均被提出討論,以驗證本論文所提出之固態轉供開關系統之效能。
不斷電系統之湧浪電流議題與解決方案同樣在本論文被提出。當不斷電系統被使用作為電壓驟降渡過策略時,負載從故障的市電電壓轉換到不斷電系統之過程經常伴隨著湧浪電流現象。為了抑制湧浪電流,一閉迴路之磁通補償器被提出,並被整合於傳統之電壓與電流控制器。本論文所提出之磁通補償器能追蹤變壓器之磁通變化,並能在不犧牲任何輸出電力品質之狀態下立即修正驟降電壓所引起之磁通偏移。因此能完全避免湧浪電流。除此之外,本文所提出之磁通控制設計被延伸至抑制多具負載變壓器於不斷電系統中所引起的湧浪電流問題。有關於磁通控制策略之設計考量與磁通估測技術之誤差分析均在本論文中被詳細探討。
This dissertation presents a new flux control scheme for a solid-state transfer switch (STS)
system and an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system to accomplish fast load transfer and to
mitigate the inrush current. Conventional STS system based on thyristors has been widely used in
medium-voltage applications to enhance the power quality and reliability. However, conventional
STS system often requires more than a quarter of cycle to complete the load transfer and its line
transfer action also causes a considerable inrush current. In this dissertation, an improved STS
with forced commutated circuit is presented to greatly reduce the transfer time and provide a better
voltage sag ride-through capability for the critical loads. Based on this forced commutation capability,
moreover, a flux estimation scheme and a thyristor gating scheme are presented to suppress
the inrush current during the load transition process when the combination of the STS system and
the transformer is used to serve the critical loads. Laboratory test results and design considerations
are presented to validate the performance of proposed STS system.
The inrush current issues associated with the solution for the UPS system are also presented
in the dissertation. When the UPS systems are used for the voltage sag ride-through, the inrush
current phenomenon often exists in the load transition process from a deformed grid voltage to
battery power. To mitigate the inrush current, a closed-loop flux compensator is proposed and
integrated with the voltage and current controllers. The proposed flux compensator can track the
transformer flux and corrects the flux deviation in real time without sacrificing any voltage quality,
thus completely avoiding the inrush current. Furthermore, the proposed flux control design is
also extended to alleviate the inrush current when multiple transformers are energized by the UPS
system. Detail description of the design issues and investigation of flux estimation error are given.
ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Dissertation organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 Conventional solid-state transfer switch system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1.1 Voltage sag detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1.2 Thyristor gating strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.3 Zero-voltage back-up transfer logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Medium voltage hybrid transfer Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3 Forced commutation techniques in transfer switch applications . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.1 Solid-state circuit breakers with active turn-off capability . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.2 Thyristor-based Solid-state circuit breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4 Inrush current phenomenon of transfer switch systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5 Conventional voltage and current control UPS systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.5.1 Filter inductor current control and load current decoupling . . . . . . . . . 23
2.5.2 Load current decoupling control design with dio/dt feedback . . . . . . . . 24
2.5.3 Filter capacitor current feedback control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.6 Inrush current mitigation techniques for power converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.6.1 Inrush current mitigation by output voltage control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6.2 Inrush current mitigation by controlling UPS switching timing . . . . . . . 28
2.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3 Operation principles of forced commutation techniques for the solid-state transfer
switch system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2 Detection of voltage sags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3 Impulse commutated solid-state transfer switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4 Impulse commutation bridge solid-state transfer switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5 Design criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.6 Experimental results of ICSTS system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.6.1 Linear load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.6.2 Inverter load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.6.3 Voltage swell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.7 Experimental results of ICBSTS system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.7.1 Forced commutation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.7.2 Single phase fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.7.3 Three phase fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.7.4 Transfer time of the ICBSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.8 Precharge of the resonant capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.8.1 Method I: Basic charging circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.8.2 Method II: Thyristor and varistor charging circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4 Inrush current suppression technique for the solid-state transfer switch system . . 77
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.2 Operation principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.2.1 Flux estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.2.2 Thyristor gating scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.3 Laboratory test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.3.1 Symmetrical fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.3.2 Asymmetrical fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.3.3 Total load-transfer time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5 Inrush current mitigation technique for the line-interactive uninterruptible power
supply systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.2 Operation principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.2.1 Physical component of proposed UPS system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.2.2 SRF Closed-loop voltage and current controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.2.3 Proposed flux compensator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.2.4 Decoupling control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5.3 Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5.3.1 Simulation results of conventional voltage and current control UPS system 111
5.3.2 Simulation results of UPS system with proposed inrush current mitigation
technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.4 Laboratory test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
5.4.1 Conventional voltage and current control method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
5.4.2 Proposed UPS control method with inrush current mitigation technique . . 123
5.4.3 Line commutation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.5 Disturbance rejection capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
5.6 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
5.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
6 Flux estimation techniques for inrush current mitigation of line interactive UPS
systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
6.2 Transformer flux estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
6.2.1 Open-loop flux estimator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
6.2.2 Closed-loop flux observer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
6.3 Error investigation of proposed flux estimation schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.4 Laboratory test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.4.1 Conventional voltage and current control UPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.4.2 Flux estimation techniques for inrush current mitigation . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
7 Inrush current mitigation technique for UPS systems withmultiple load transformers165
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
7.2 Operation principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
7.2.1 Inrush current mitigation technique for multiple load transformers . . . . . 166
7.2.2 Detection of transformer switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
7.3 Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7.3.1 Simulation results of conventional UPS system with two load transformers 170
7.3.2 Simulation results of proposed UPS system with two load transformers . . 171
7.3.3 Investigation of error in the inrush current mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
7.4 Laboratory test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.4.1 Conventional UPS system with two load transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.4.2 Proposed UPS system with two load transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
8 Conclusion and future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8.1 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8.2 Future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Specification for semiconductor processing equipment voltage sag immunity
(SEMI F47-0200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Appendix B: Data of electrical steel sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
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VITA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
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