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研究生:施智中
研究生(外文):Shih, Chih-Chung
論文名稱:三相市電併聯轉換器共模電壓抑制調變技術之評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluations of Common-Mode Voltage Reduction Modulation Techniques for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Converters
指導教授:鄭博泰
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Po-Tai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:脈寬調變技術三相共模電壓共模電流漏電流光伏寄生電容
外文關鍵詞:pulsewidth modulation (PWM)three-phasecommon mode voltage (CMV)common mode current (CMC)leakage currentphotovoltaicparasitic capacitance
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本論文主要針對與市電併聯的太陽能系統中,適合其轉換器所使用的脈寬調變技術做探討。由於在太陽能市電併聯系統中,效率、重量及體積為重要的考量因素,因此通常使用非隔離型(無變壓器)的電路架構。但由於缺少隔離,大量的漏電流會經由太陽能板對地的雜散電容流入地面,這對安全上是一很大的危害。因此探討使用脈寬調變的技術來抑制共模電流,為本論文討論的方向。

由於共模電壓的振幅對共模電流的量有很大的影響,故本論文以實驗的方式來觀察使用傳統脈寬調變技術與降低共模電壓的調變技術下的差異。在實驗室之測試平台做測試,從測試結果中可發現,由於在切換狀態的選擇上避免使用零向量,降低共模電壓調變技術較傳統的脈寬調變技術有更好的表現。在幾種降低共模電壓的調變技術之間有相異的結果,本論文也在時域及頻域中加以討論。由模擬以及實驗結果可以得知,Near State PWM 在所有調變技術中有最好的表現,不論是在漏電流大小、交流或直流側電流的漣波大小及切換損都有最令人滿意的結果。

最後,針對系統共振的情形,可以由系統參數估測出系統之共振頻率。在操作市電併聯的太陽能系統之轉換器時,此共振頻率可以做為選擇轉換器切換頻率的一個參考,避免操作頻率過於接近共振頻率而觸發共振,使共模電流表現惡化。
This thesis presents a survey on reduced common-mode voltage pulse width modulation techniques suitable for grid-connected photovoltaic converters. As the conversion efficiency, weight and size are critical concerns, the non-isolation (i.e., transformerless) photovoltaic system is preferred. However, the common-mode current flowing through stray capacitances is a critical safety issue due to the lack of galvanic isolation. Therefore, reducing common-mode current magnitude by using PWM methods is the target of this survey.

Due to common-mode voltage magnitude has great influence on common-mode current magnitude, conventional PWM methods (Space Vector PWM and Discontinuous PWM1) and reduced common-mode voltage PWM methods (Active Zero State PWM , Near State PWM) are experimentally tested. The performance of all PWM methods has been investigated with laboratory test bench. It can be shown that the common-mode current performance with reduced common-mode voltage PWM methods implemented are much better than that with conventional PWM methods due to the avoidance of using zero state vectors. The differences on common-mode current performance among reduced common-mode voltage PWM methods are analysed either in time domain or frequency domain. In particular, Near State PWM yields the best overall performance including low ground leakage current, low inverter output (phase current) and input (DC link current) ripple, and low switching losses.

When accounting for the system resonance, the resonant frequency in the photovoltaic system can be predicted by system parameters. The predicted resonant frequency can be an index when choosing switching frequency for grid-connected photovoltaic converters avoiding of triggering system resonance, making common-mode current performance worse.
Abstract
List of Tables
List of Figures

1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Aspect of Research
1.3 Organization

2 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Common-mode Voltage
2.3 Review of PWM Methods
2.3.1 Space Vector PWM
2.3.2 Discontinuous PWM
2.3.3 Active Zero State PWM
2.3.4 Remote State PWM
2.3.5 Near State PWM
2.4 Evaluation of PWM Performance
2.4.1 Harmonic Distortion Factor
2.4.2 DC Link Current Harmonics
2.4.3 Voltage Linearity
2.5 Past Work in Laboratory
2.6 Summary

3 Principles of Operation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Control of Grid-connected Converter
3.2.1 DC Bus Voltage Controller and Current Controller
3.2.2 Common-mode Voltage Reduction PWM Modulator
3.3 System Impedance Analysis
3.4 Summary

4 Simulation Results
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Simulation Results
4.2.1 CMV and CMC under Different PWM Schemes
4.2.2 DC Bus Current Ripple
4.3 Summary

5 Laboratory Results
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Experimental Results
5.2.1 Performance on CMC and Phase Current
5.2.2 CMV and CMC under Different PWM Schemes
5.2.3 DC Bus Voltage Ripple
5.2.4 CMV and CMC Performance with Different Value of Stray Capacitance
5.3 Summary

6 Conclusions and Future Work
6.1 Conclusions
6.2 Future Work

Bibliography
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[2] T. Kerekes, M. Liserre, R. Teodorescu, C. Klumpner, and M. Sumner, “Evaluation of three-phase transformerless photovoltaic inverter topologies,” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2202–2211, 2009.

[3] L. Palma, M. H. Todorovic, and P. N. Enjeti, “Analysis of common-mode voltage in utility-interactive fuel cell power conditioners,” Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2009.

[4] L. Yen-Shin and S. Fu-San, “Optimal common-mode voltage reduction pwm technique for inverter control with consideration of the dead-time effects-part i: basic development,” Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1605–1612, 2004.

[5] L. Yen-Shin, C. Po-Sheng, L. Hsiang-Kuo, and J. Chou, “Optimal common-mode voltage reduction pwm technique for inverter control with consideration of the deadtime effects-part ii: applications to im drives with diode front end,” Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1613–1620, 2004.

[6] E. Un and A. M. Hava, “A high performance pwm algorithm for common mode voltage reduction in three-phase voltage source inverters,” in Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE, 2008, pp. 1528–1534.

[7] M. Cacciato, A. Consoli, G. Scarcella, and A. Testa, “Reduction of common-mode currents in pwm inverter motor drives,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 469–475, March/April 1999.

[8] M. Cavalcanti, K. C. D. Oliveria, A. M. de Farias, F. A. S. Neves, G. M. S. Azevedo, and F. C. Camboim, “Modulation techniques to eliminate leakage currents in transformerless three-phase photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industria Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1360–1368, April 2010.

[9] E. Un and A. M. Hava, “A near-state pwm method with reduced switching losses and reduced common-mode voltage for three-phase voltage source inverters,” Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 782–793, 2009.

[10] A. M. Hava and E. Un, “Performance analysis of reduced common-mode voltage pwm methods and comparison with standard pwm methods for three-phase voltage-source inverters,” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 241–252, 2009.

[11] A. M. Hava, R. J. Kerkman, and T. A. Lipo, “Simple analytical and graphical methods for carrier-based pwm-vsi drives,” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 49–61, 1999.

[12] H. Chung-Chuan and C. Po-Tai, “A multi-carrier pulse width modulator for the auxiliary converter and the diode rectifier,” in Power Electronics and Drive Systems, 2009. PEDS 2009. International Conference on, 2009, pp. 393–398.

[13] T. G. Habetler, “A space vector-based rectifier regulator for ac/dc/ac converters,” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 1993.

[14] N. Cetin and A. Hava, “Scalar pwm implementation methods for three-phase threewire inverters,” in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2009. ELECO 2009. International Conference on, 5-8 2009, pp. I–447 –I–451.

[15] A. M. Hava, N. O. Cetin, and E. Un, “On the contribution of pwm methods to the common mode (leakage) current in conventional three-phase two-level inverters as applied to ac motor drives,” in Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2008. IAS '08. IEEE, 2008, pp. 1–8.

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